- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- 7th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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One of the key factors in simulating realistic wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds numbers is the selection of an appropriate turbulence model for the steady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) equations. In this investigation, the performance of several turbulence models was explored for the simulation of steady, compressible, turbulent flow on complex geometries (concave and convex surface curvatures) and unstructured grids. The turbulence models considered were the Spalart–Allmaras model, the Wilcox k- ω model and the Menter shear stress transport (SST) model. The FLITE3D flow solver was employed, which utilizes a stabilized finite volume method with discontinuity capturing. A numerical benchmarking of the different models was performed for classical Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) cases, such as supersonic flow over an isothermal flat plate, transonic flow over the RAE2822 airfoil, the ONERA M6 wing and a generic F15 aircraft configuration. Validation was performed by means of available experimental data from the literature as well as high spatial/temporal resolution Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). For attached or mildly separated flows, the performance of all turbulence models was consistent. However, the contrary was observed in separated flows with recirculation zones. Particularly, the Menter SST model showed the best compromise between accurately describing the physics of the flow and numerical stability.more » « less
Seismic design of water retaining structures relies heavily on the response of the retained water to shaking. The water dynamic response has been evaluated by means of analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. In practice, it is common to use simplified code‐based methods to evaluate the added demands imposed by water sloshing. Yet, such methods were developed with an inherent set of assumptions that might limit their application. Alternatively, numerical modeling methods offer a more accurate way of quantifying the water response and have been commonly validated using 1 g shake table experiments. In this study, a unique series of five centrifuge tests was conducted with the goal of investigating the hydrodynamic behavior of water by varying its height and length. Moreover, sine wave and earthquake motions were applied to examine the water response at different types and levels of excitation. Arbitrary Lagrangian‐Eulerian finite element models were then developed to reproduce 1 g shake table experiments available in the literature in addition to the centrifuge tests conducted in this study. The results of the numerical simulations as well as the simplified and analytical methods were compared to the experimental measurements, in terms of free surface elevation and hydrodynamic pressures, to evaluate their applicability and limitations. The comparison showed that the numerical models were able to reasonably capture the water response of all configurations both under earthquake and sine wave motions. The analytical solutions performed well except for cases with resonance under harmonic motions. As for the simplified methods, they provided acceptable results for the peak responses under earthquake motions. However, under sine wave motions, where convective sloshing is significant, they underpredict the response. Also, beyond peak ground accelerations of 0.5 g., a mild nonlinear increase in peak dynamic pressures was measured which deviates from assumed linear response in the simplified methods. The study confirmed the reliability of numerical models in capturing water dynamic responses, demonstrating their broad applicability for use in complex problems of fluid‐structure‐soil interaction.
The susceptibility of a granular soil to suffusion is strongly dependent on its grain size distribution (GSD) and the mechanical and hydraulic conditions it is subjected to. This study investigates the onset of suffusion considering the effect of confining pressure and stress anisotropy using a fully resolved computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method (CFD–DEM). Three benchmarks, including the sedimentations of single and two adjacent spheres and the classic one‐dimensional (1D) consolidation are performed to demonstrate the capability of this method for high‐fidelity particle‐fluid simulations. A modified hydraulic criterion for the onset of suffusion considering stress anisotropy is presented. The microstructural changes of soil specimens before and during global suffusion are inspected, with emphasis on the evolutions of particle kinetic energy and displacements, force chain networks, and stress anisotropy. We found that the critical hydraulic gradient is negatively correlated with the confining pressure and the degree of stress anisotropy. Fine particles in the soil matrix are locally detached at small hydraulic gradients before the apparent global suffusion, as manifested by the variation of particle kinetic energy and coordination numbers. The roles of different contact types on force transmission and stress anisotropy in eroded specimens are also examined.
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