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In this paper, we study the mixed Littlewood conjecture with pseudo-absolute values. For any pseudo-absolute-value sequence ${\mathcal{D}}$ , we obtain a sharp criterion such that for almost every $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ the inequality $$\begin{eqnarray}|n|_{{\mathcal{D}}}|n\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}-p|\leq \unicode[STIX]{x1D713}(n)\end{eqnarray}$$ has infinitely many coprime solutions $(n,p)\in \mathbb{N}\times \mathbb{Z}$ for a certain one-parameter family of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}$ . Also, under a minor condition on pseudo-absolute-value sequences ${\mathcal{D}}_{1},{\mathcal{D}}_{2},\ldots ,{\mathcal{D}}_{k}$ , we obtain a sharp criterion on a general sequence $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}(n)$ such that for almost every $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ the inequality $$\begin{eqnarray}|n|_{{\mathcal{D}}_{1}}|n|_{{\mathcal{D}}_{2}}\cdots |n|_{{\mathcal{D}}_{k}}|n\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}-p|\leq \unicode[STIX]{x1D713}(n)\end{eqnarray}$$ has infinitely many coprime solutions $(n,p)\in \mathbb{N}\times \mathbb{Z}$ .
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
91 to 109
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Let $f\in C^{2}(\mathbb{T}^{2})$ have mean value 0 and consider $$\begin{eqnarray}\sup _{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}\,\text{closed geodesic}}\frac{1}{|\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}|}\biggl|\int _{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}}f\,d{\mathcal{H}}^{1}\biggr|,\end{eqnarray}$$ where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}$ ranges over all closed geodesics $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}:\mathbb{S}^{1}\rightarrow \mathbb{T}^{2}$ and $|\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}|$ denotes its length. We prove that this supremum is always attained. Moreover, we can bound the length of the geodesic $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}$ attaining the supremum in terms of the smoothness of the function: for all $s\geq 2$ , $$\begin{eqnarray}|\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}|^{s}{\lesssim}_{s}\biggl(\max _{|\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}|=s}\Vert \unicode[STIX]{x2202}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}}f\Vert _{L^{1}(\mathbb{T}^{2})}\biggr)\Vert \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FB}f\Vert _{L^{2}}\Vert f\Vert _{L^{2}}^{-2}.\end{eqnarray}$$
  2. We give an integrability criterion on a real-valued non-increasing function $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}$ guaranteeing that for almost all (or almost no) pairs $(A,\mathbf{b})$ , where $A$ is a real $m\times n$ matrix and $\mathbf{b}\in \mathbb{R}^{m}$ , the system $$\begin{eqnarray}\Vert A\mathbf{q}+\mathbf{b}-\mathbf{p}\Vert ^{m}<\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}(T),\quad \Vert \mathbf{q}\Vert ^{n}
  3. Abstract

    Given a sequence $\{Z_d\}_{d\in \mathbb{N}}$ of smooth and compact hypersurfaces in ${\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}$, we prove that (up to extracting subsequences) there exists a regular definable hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^n$ such that each manifold $Z_d$ is diffeomorphic to a component of the zero set on $\Gamma$ of some polynomial of degree $d$. (This is in sharp contrast with the case when $\Gamma$ is semialgebraic, where for example the homological complexity of the zero set of a polynomial $p$ on $\Gamma$ is bounded by a polynomial in $\deg (p)$.) More precisely, given the above sequence of hypersurfaces, we construct a regular, compact, semianalytic hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^{n}$ containing a subset $D$ homeomorphic to a disk, and a family of polynomials $\{p_m\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ of degree $\deg (p_m)=d_m$ such that $(D, Z(p_m)\cap D)\sim ({\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}, Z_{d_m}),$ i.e. the zero set of $p_m$ in $D$ is isotopic to $Z_{d_m}$ in ${\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}$. This says that, up to extracting subsequences, the intersection of $\Gamma$ with a hypersurface of degree $d$ can be as complicated as we want. We call these ‘pathological examples’. In particular, we show that for every $0 \leq k \leq n-2$ and every sequence of natural numbers $a=\{a_d\}_{d\in \mathbb{N}}$ there is a regular, compact semianalyticmore »hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^n$, a subsequence $\{a_{d_m}\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ and homogeneous polynomials $\{p_{m}\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ of degree $\deg (p_m)=d_m$ such that (0.1)$$\begin{equation}b_k(\Gamma\cap Z(p_m))\geq a_{d_m}.\end{equation}$$ (Here $b_k$ denotes the $k$th Betti number.) This generalizes a result of Gwoździewicz et al. [13]. On the other hand, for a given definable $\Gamma$ we show that the Fubini–Study measure, in the Gaussian probability space of polynomials of degree $d$, of the set $\Sigma _{d_m,a, \Gamma }$ of polynomials verifying (0.1) is positive, but there exists a constant $c_\Gamma$ such that $$\begin{equation*}0<{\mathbb{P}}(\Sigma_{d_m, a, \Gamma})\leq \frac{c_{\Gamma} d_m^{\frac{n-1}{2}}}{a_{d_m}}.\end{equation*}$$ This shows that the set of ‘pathological examples’ has ‘small’ measure (the faster $a$ grows, the smaller the measure and pathologies are therefore rare). In fact we show that given $\Gamma$, for most polynomials a Bézout-type bound holds for the intersection $\Gamma \cap Z(p)$: for every $0\leq k\leq n-2$ and $t>0$: $$\begin{equation*}{\mathbb{P}}\left(\{b_k(\Gamma\cap Z(p))\geq t d^{n-1} \}\right)\leq \frac{c_\Gamma}{td^{\frac{n-1}{2}}}.\end{equation*}$$

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  4. Let $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\in \mathbb{R}\backslash \mathbb{Q}$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC})=\limsup _{n\rightarrow \infty }(\ln q_{n+1})/q_{n}<\infty$ , where $p_{n}/q_{n}$ is the continued fraction approximation to $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ . Let $(H_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC},\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}}u)(n)=u(n+1)+u(n-1)+2\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}\cos 2\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}+n\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC})u(n)$ be the almost Mathieu operator on $\ell ^{2}(\mathbb{Z})$ , where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}\in \mathbb{R}$ . Avila and Jitomirskaya [The ten Martini problem. Ann. of Math. (2), 170 (1) (2009), 303–342] conjectured that, for $2\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}\in \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\mathbb{Z}+\mathbb{Z}$ , $H_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC},\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}}$ satisfies Anderson localization if $|\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}|>e^{2\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC})}$ . In this paper, we develop a method to treat simultaneous frequency and phase resonances and obtain that, for $2\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}\in \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\mathbb{Z}+\mathbb{Z}$ , $H_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC},\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}}$ satisfies Anderson localization if $|\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}|>e^{3\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FD}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC})}$ .
  5. For each $t\in \mathbb{R}$ , we define the entire function $$\begin{eqnarray}H_{t}(z):=\int _{0}^{\infty }e^{tu^{2}}\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}(u)\cos (zu)\,du,\end{eqnarray}$$ where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}$ is the super-exponentially decaying function $$\begin{eqnarray}\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}(u):=\mathop{\sum }_{n=1}^{\infty }(2\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}^{2}n^{4}e^{9u}-3\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}n^{2}e^{5u})\exp (-\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}n^{2}e^{4u}).\end{eqnarray}$$ Newman showed that there exists a finite constant $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}$ (the de Bruijn–Newman constant ) such that the zeros of $H_{t}$ are all real precisely when $t\geqslant \unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}$ . The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the assertion $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}\leqslant 0$ , and Newman conjectured the complementary bound $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}\geqslant 0$ . In this paper, we establish Newman’s conjecture. The argument proceeds by assuming for contradiction that $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}<0$ and then analyzing the dynamics of zeros of $H_{t}$ (building on the work of Csordas, Smith and Varga) to obtain increasingly strong control on the zeros of $H_{t}$ in the range $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6EC}