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- Proceedings of the ASME 2019 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC2019)
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- National Science Foundation
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Comparison of Flowability and Sinterability Among Different Binder Jetting Feedstock Powders: Nanopowder, Micropowder, and Granulated PowderAbstract Feedstock powders used in binder jetting additive manufacturing include nanopowder, micropowder, and granulated powder. Two important characteristics of the feedstock powders are flowability and sinterability. This paper aims to compare the flowability and sinterability of different feedstock powders. Three powders were compared: nanopowder (with a particle size of ∼100 nm), micropowder (with a particle size of 70 μm), and granulated powder (with a granule size of ∼70 μm) made from the nanopowder by spray freeze drying. Flowability metrics employed included apparent density (AD), tap density (TD), volumetric flow rate (VFR), mass flow rate (MFR), Hausner ratio (HR), Carr index (CI), and repose angle (RA). Sinterability metrics employed included sintered bulk density (SBD), volumetric shrinkage (VS), and densification ratio (DR). Results show that the granulated powder has a higher flowability than the nanopowder and a higher sinterability than the micropowder. Moreover, different flowability metric values of the granulated powder are close to those of the micropowder, indicating that these two powers have a comparably high flowability. Similarly, different sinterability metric values of the granulated powder are close to those of the nanopowder, indicating that these two powders have a comparably high sinterability.
Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics: Feedstock Powder Preparation by Spray Freeze GranulationObjective of this study is to prepare the binder jetting feedstock powder by spray freeze drying and study the effects of its parameters on the powder properties. Binder jetting additive manufacturing is a promising technology for fabricating ceramic parts with complex or customized geometries. However, this process is limited by the relatively low density of the fabricated parts even after sintering. The main cause comes from the contradicting requirements of the particle size of the feedstock powder: a large particle size (>5 μm) is required for a high flowability while a small particle size (<1 μm) for a high sinterability. For the first time, a novel technology for the feedstock material preparation, called spray freeze drying, is investigated to address this contradiction. Using raw alumina nanopowder (100 nm), a full factorial design at two levels for two factors (spraying pressure and slurry feed rate) was formed to study their effects on the properties (i.e., granule size, flowability, and sinterability) of the obtained granulated powder. Results show that high pressure and small feed rate lead to small granule size. Compared with the raw powder, the flowability of the granulated powders was significantly increased, and the high sinterability was also maintained. Thismore »
Abstract This paper reports a study on the effects of particle size distribution (tuned by mixing different-sized powders) on density of a densely packed powder, powder bed density, and sintered density in binder jetting additive manufacturing. An analytical model was used first to study the mixture packing density. Analytical results showed that multimodal (bimodal or trimodal) mixtures could achieve a higher packing density than their component powders and there existed an optimal mixing fraction to achieve the maximum mixture packing density. Both a lower component particle size ratio (fine to coarse) and a larger component packing density ratio (fine to coarse) led to a larger maximum mixture packing density. A threshold existed for the component packing density ratio, below which the mixing method was not effective for density improvement. Its relationship to the component particle size ratio was calculated and plotted. In addition, the dependence of the optimal mixing fraction and maximum mixture packing density on the component particle size ratio and component packing density ratio was calculated and plotted. These plots can be used as theoretical tools to select parameters for the mixing method. Experimental results of tap density were consistent with the above-mentioned analytical predictions. Also, experimental measurementsmore »
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