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Title: Chromophores inspired by the colors of fruit, flowers and wine
Abstract Anthocyanins, which are responsible for most of the red, blue and purple colors of fruits and flowers, are very efficient at absorbing and dissipating light energy via excited state proton transfer or charge-transfer mediated internal conversion without appreciable excited triplet state formation. During the maturation of red wines, grape anthocyanins are slowly transformed into pyranoanthocyanins, which have a much more chemically stable pyranoflavylium cation chromophore. Development of straightforward synthetic routes to mono- and disubstituted derivatives of the pyranoflavylium cation chromophore has stimulated theoretical and experimental studies that highlight the interesting absorption and emission properties and redox properties of pyranoflavylium cations. Thus, p-methoxyphenyl substitution enhances the fluorescence quantum yield, while a p-dimethylaminophenyl substituent results in fast decay via a twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) state. Unlike anthocyanins and their synthetic analogs (flavylium cations), a variety of pyranoflavylium cations form readily detectable excited triplet states that sensitize singlet oxygen formation in solution and exhibit appreciable two-photon absorption cross sections for near-infrared light, suggesting a potential for applications in photodynamic therapy. These excited triplet states have microsecond lifetimes in solution and excited state reduction potentials of at least 1.3 V vs. SCE, features that are clearly desirable in a triplet photoredox catalyst.
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Pure and Applied Chemistry
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National Science Foundation
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