In this paper, we explore the small-cell uplink access point (AP) placement problem in the context of throughput optimality and provide solutions while taking into consideration inter-cell interference (ICI). First, we briefly review the vector quantization (VQ) approach and related single user throughput optimal formulations for AP placement. Then, we investigate the small-cell case with multiple users and expose the limitations of mean squared error based VQ for solving this problem. While the Lloyd algorithm from the VQ approach is found not to strictly solve the small-cell case, based on the tractability and quality of the resulting AP placement, we deem it suitable as a simple and appropriate framework to solve more complicated problems. Accordingly, to minimize ICI and consequently enhance achievable throughput, we design two Lloyd-type algorithms, namely the Interference Lloyd algorithm and the Inter-AP Lloyd algorithm, both of which incorporate ICI in their distortion functions. Simulation results show that both of the proposed algorithms provide superior 95%-likely rate over the traditional Lloyd algorithm and the Inter-AP Lloyd algorithm yields a significant increase of up to 36.34% in achievable rate over the Lloyd algorithm.
Quantizers with Parameterized Distortion Measures
In many quantization problems, the distortion function is given by the Euclidean metric to measure the distance of a source sample to any given reproduction point of the quantizer. We will in this work regard distortion functions, which are additively and multiplicatively weighted for each reproduction point resulting in a heterogeneous quantization problem, as used for example in deployment problems of sensor networks. Whereas, normally in such problems, the average distortion is minimized for given weights (parameters), we will optimize the quantization problem over all weights, i.e., we tune or control the distortion functions in our favor. For a uniform source distribution in one-dimension, we derive the unique minimizer, given as the uniform scalar quantizer with an optimal common weight. By numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this result extends to two-dimensions where asymptotically the parameter optimized quantizer is the hexagonal lattice with common weights. As an application, we will determine the optimal deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to provide a wireless communication to ground terminals under a minimal communication power cost. Here, the optimal weights relate to the optimal flight heights of the UAVs.
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