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Title: Optimal deployments of UAVs with directional antennas for a power-efficient coverage
To provide a reliable wireless uplink for users in a given ground area, one can deploy Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as base stations (BSs). In another application, one can use UAVs to collect data from sensors on the ground. For a power efficient and scalable deployment of such flying BSs, directional antennas can be utilized to efficiently cover arbitrary 2-D ground areas. We consider a large-scale wireless path-loss model with a realistic angle-dependent radiation pattern for the directional antennas. Based on such a model, we determine the optimal 3-D deployment of N UAVs to minimize the average transmit-power consumption of the users in a given target area. The users are assumed to have identical transmitters with ideal omnidirectional antennas and the UAVs have identical directional antennas with given half-power beamwidth (HPBW) and symmetric radiation pattern along the vertical axis. For uniformly distributed ground users, we show that the UAVs have to share a common flight height in an optimal power-efficient deployment, by simulations. We also derive in closed-form the asymptotic optimal common flight height of N UAVs in terms of the area size, data-rate, bandwidth, HPBW, and path-loss exponent.
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IEEE Transactions on Communications
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National Science Foundation
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