skip to main content

Title: Band alignment of III-N, ZnO and II-IV-N2 semiconductors from the electron affinity rule
The natural band alignment between various II-IV-N$_2$ and III-N and ZnO semiconductors are determined by means of first-principles surface calculations of their electron affinities. While these ignore specific interface dipole formation and strain effects, they provide a first guidance to the construction of heterojunction devices involving this family of materials.
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The syntheses of (DIM)Ni(NO 3 ) 2 and (DIM)Ni(NO 2 ) 2 , where DIM is a 1,4-diazadiene bidentate donor, are reported to enable testing of bis boryl reduced N-heterocycles for their ability to carry out stepwise deoxygenation of coordinated nitrate and nitrite, forming O(Bpin) 2 . Single deoxygenation of (DIM)Ni(NO 2 ) 2 yields the tetrahedral complex (DIM)Ni(NO)(ONO), with a linear nitrosyl and κ 1 -ONO. Further deoxygenation of (DIM)Ni(NO)(ONO) results in the formation of dimeric [(DIM)Ni(NO)] 2 , where the dimer is linked through a Ni–Ni bond. The lost reduced nitrogen byproduct is shown to be N 2 O, indicating N–N bond formation in the course of the reaction. Isotopic labelling studies establish that the N–N bond of N 2 O is formed in a bimetallic Ni 2 intermediate and that the two nitrogen atoms of (DIM)Ni(NO)(ONO) become symmetry equivalent prior to N–N bond formation. The [(DIM)Ni(NO)] 2 dimer is susceptible to oxidation by AgX (X = NO 3 − , NO 2 − , and OTf − ) as well as nitric oxide, the latter of which undergoes nitric oxide disproportionation to yield N 2 O and (DIM)Ni(NO)(ONO). We show that the first step in the deoxygenationmore »of (DIM)Ni(NO)(ONO) to liberate N 2 O is outer sphere electron transfer, providing insight into the organic reductants employed for deoxygenation. Lastly, we show that at elevated temperatures, deoxygenation is accompanied by loss of DIM to form either pyrazine or bipyridine bridged polymers, with retention of a BpinO − bridging ligand.« less
  2. Polymeric nitrogen (PN) belongs to a general family of materials containing all-nitrogen molecules or clusters. Although it is rare and challenging to synthesize PN members, they are attracting increasing scientific attention due to their high energy storage capacity and possible use as a green catalyst. A few theoretical calculations predicted the possible PN phases from N 2 gas, but they all require extremely high pressures and temperatures to synthesize. In this work, a practical way to synthesize N 8 polymeric nitrogen from an N 3 − precursor is elucidated using density functional theory calculations. The detailed mechanism, , is determined. The calculated energy barriers indicate that the first step is the rate-limiting step. This result guides us to rationally synthesize N 8 under UV (254 nm) irradiation, chosen based on the calculated absorption spectrum for the azide anion. As expected, UV irradiation enhances N 8 yields by nearly four times. This provides an interesting route to the scalable synthesis of high energy density N 8 compounds.
  3. Understanding H 2 binding and activation is important in the context of designing transition metal catalysts for many processes, including hydrogenation and the interconversion of H 2 with protons and electrons. This work reports the first thermodynamic and kinetic H 2 binding studies for an isostructural series of first-row metal complexes: NiML, where M = Al ( 1 ), Ga ( 2 ), and In ( 3 ), and L = [N( o -(NCH 2 P i Pr 2 )C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 3− . Thermodynamic free energies (Δ G °) and free energies of activation (Δ G ‡ ) for binding equilibria were obtained via variable-temperature 31 P NMR studies and lineshape analysis. The supporting metal exerts a large influence on the thermodynamic favorability of both H 2 and N 2 binding to Ni, with Δ G ° values for H 2 binding found to span nearly the entire range of previous reports. The non-classical H 2 adduct, (η 2 -H 2 )NiInL ( 3 -H 2 ), was structurally characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction—the first such study for a Ni(η 2 -H 2 ) complex or any d 10 M(η 2 -H 2 ) complex.more »UV-Vis studies and TD-DFT calculations identified specific electronic structure perturbations of the supporting metal which poise NiML complexes for small-molecule binding. ETS-NOCV calculations indicate that H 2 binding primarily occurs via H–H σ-donation to the Ni 4p z -based LUMO, which is proposed to become energetically accessible as the Ni(0)→M( iii ) dative interaction increases for the larger M( iii ) ions. Linear free-energy relationships are discussed, with the activation barrier for H 2 binding (Δ G ‡ ) found to decrease proportionally for more thermodynamically favorable equilibria. The Δ G ° values for H 2 and N 2 binding to NiML complexes were also found to be more exergonic for the larger M( iii ) ions.« less
  4. [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] 2 {Cp* = η 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, R = Me, Et} have previously been found to be moderately air stable, yet highly reducing, with estimated D + /0.5D 2 (where D 2 and D + represent the dimer and the corresponding monomeric cation, respectively) redox potentials of ca. −2.0 V vs. FeCp 2 +/0 . These properties have led to their use as n-dopants for organic semiconductors. Use of arenes substituted with π-electron donors is anticipated to lead to even more strongly reducing dimers. [RuCp*(1-(Me 2 N)-3,5-Me 2 C 6 H 3 )] + PF 6 − and [RuCp*(1,4-(Me 2 N) 2 C 6 H 4 )] + PF 6 − have been synthesized and electrochemically and crystallographically characterized; both exhibit D + /D potentials slightly more cathodic than [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] + . Reduction of [RuCp*(1,4-(Me 2 N) 2 C 6 H 4 )] + PF 6 − using silica-supported sodium–potassium alloy leads to a mixture of isomers of [RuCp*(1,4-(Me 2 N) 2 C 6 H 4 )] 2 , two of which have been crystallographically characterized. One of these isomers has a similar molecular structure to [RuCp*(1,3,5-Et 3more »C 6 H 3 )] 2 ; the central C–C bond is exo , exo , i.e. , on the opposite face of both six-membered rings from the metals. A D + /0.5D 2 potential of −2.4 V is estimated for this exo , exo dimer, more reducing than that of [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] 2 (−2.0 V). This isomer reacts much more rapidly with both air and electron acceptors than [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] 2 due to a much more cathodic D 2 ˙ + /D 2 potential. The other isomer to be crystallographically characterized, along with a third isomer, are both dimerized in an exo , endo fashion, representing the first examples of such dimers. Density functional theory calculations and reactivity studies indicate that the central bonds of these two isomers are weaker than those of the exo , exo isomer, or of [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] 2 , leading to estimated D + /0.5D 2 potentials of −2.5 and −2.6 V vs. FeCp 2 +/0 . At the same time the D 2 ˙ + /D 2 potentials for the exo , endo dimers are anodically shifted relative to those of [RuCp*(1,3,5-R 3 C 6 H 3 )] 2 , resulting in much greater air stability than for the exo , exo isomer.« less
  5. The success of graphene created a new era in materials science, especially for two-dimensional (2D) materials. 2D single-crystal carbon nitride (C 3 N) is the first and only crystalline, hole-free, single-layer carbon nitride and its controlled large-scale synthesis has recently attracted tremendous interest in thermal transport. Here, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport between monolayer C 3 N and the parent graphene, and focused on the effect of temperature and strain on the thermal conductivity ( κ ) of C 3 N, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations. The κ of C 3 N shows an anomalous temperature dependence, and the κ of C 3 N at high temperatures is larger than the expected value following the common trend of κ ∼ 1/ T . Moreover, the κ of C 3 N is found to be increased by applying a bilateral tensile strain, despite its similar planar honeycomb structure to graphene. The underlying mechanism is revealed by providing direct evidence for the interaction between lone-pair N-s electrons and bonding electrons from C atoms in C 3 N based on the analysis of orbital-projected electronic structures and electron localization function (ELF). Our researchmore »not only conduct a comprehensive study on the thermal transport in graphene-like C 3 N, but also reveal the physical origin of its anomalous properties, which would have significant implications on the future studies of nanoscale thermal transport.« less