skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: The biology of fog: results from coastal Maine and Namib Desert reveal common drivers of fog microbial composition
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Science of The Total Environment
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1547 to 1556
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) is a proposed IETF standard enabling local area networks (LAN) to automatically configure their access control when adding a new IoT device based on the recommendations provided for that device by the manufacturer. MUD has been proposed as an isolation-based defensive mechanism with a focus on devices in the home, where there is no dedicated network administrator. In this paper, we describe the efficacy of MUD for a generic IoT device under different threat scenarios in the context of the Fog. We propose a method to use rate limiting to prevent end devices from participating in denial of service attacks (DDoS), including against the Fog itself. We illustrate our assumptions by providing a possible real world example and describe the benefits for MUD in the Fog for various stakeholders. 
    more » « less
  2. Fog computing has been advocated as an enabling technology for computationally intensive services in connected smart vehicles. Most existing works focus on analyzing and opti- mizing the queueing and workload processing latencies, ignoring the fact that the access latency between vehicles and fog/cloud servers can sometimes dominate the end-to-end service latency. This motivates the work in this paper, where we report a five- month urban measurement study of the wireless access latency between a connected vehicle and a fog computing system sup- ported by commercially available multi-operator LTE networks. We propose AdaptiveFog, a novel framework for autonomous and dynamic switching between different LTE operators that implement fog/cloud infrastructure. The main objective here is to maximize the service confidence level, defined as the probability that the tolerable latency threshold for each supported type of service can be guaranteed. AdaptiveFog has been implemented on a smart phone app, running on a moving vehicle. The app periodically measures the round-trip time between the vehicle and fog/cloud servers. An empirical spatial statistic model is established to characterize the spatial variation of the latency across the main driving routes of the city. To quantify the perfor- mance difference between different LTE networks, we introduce the weighted Kantorovich-Rubinstein (K-R) distance. An optimal policy is derived for the vehicle to dynamically switch between LTE operators’ networks while driving. Extensive analysis and simulation are performed based on our latency measurement dataset. Our results show that AdaptiveFog achieves around 30% and 50% improvement in the confidence level of fog and cloud latency, respectively. 
    more » « less