skip to main content

Title: Large-scale star formation in Auriga region
ABSTRACT

New observations in the VI bands along with archival data from the 2MASS and WISE surveys have been used to generate a catalogue of young stellar objects (YSOs) covering an area of about 6° × 6° in the Auriga region centred at l ∼ 173° and b ∼ 1.5°. The nature of the identified YSOs and their spatial distribution are used to study the star formation in the region. The distribution of YSOs along with that of the ionized and molecular gas reveals two ring-like structures stretching over an area of a few degrees each in extent. We name these structures as Auriga Bubbles 1 and 2. The centre of the Bubbles appears to be above the Galactic mid-plane. The majority of Class I YSOs are associated with the Bubbles, whereas the relatively older population, i.e. Class ii objects are rather randomly distributed. Using the minimum spanning tree analysis, we found 26 probable subclusters having five or more members. The subclusters are between ∼0.5 and ∼3 pc in size and are somewhat elongated. The star formation efficiency in most of the subcluster region varies between 5 ${{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and 20 ${{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ indicating that the subclusters could more » be bound regions. The radii of these subclusters also support it.

« less
Authors:
 ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10131148
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
492
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2446-2467
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We used the Immersion GRating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) to determine fundamental parameters for 61 K- and M-type young stellar objects (YSOs) located in the Ophiuchus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions. We employed synthetic spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to fit specificK-band spectral regions and determine the photospheric temperature (T), surface gravity (logg), magnetic field strength (B), projected rotational velocity (vsini), andK-band veiling (rK). We determinedBfor ∼46% of our sample. Stellar parameters were compared to the results from Taurus-Auriga and the TW Hydrae association presented in Paper I of this series. We classified all the YSOs in the IGRINS survey with infrared spectral indices from Two Micron All Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry between 2 and 24μm. We found that Class II YSOs typically have lowerloggandvsini, similarB, and higherK-band veiling than their Class III counterparts. Additionally, we determined the stellar parameters for a sample of K and M field stars also observed with IGRINS. We have identified intrinsic similarities and differences at different evolutionary stages with our homogeneous determination of stellar parameters in the IGRINS YSO survey. Consideringloggas amore »proxy for age, we found that the Ophiuchus and Taurus samples have a similar age. We also find that Upper Scorpius and TWA YSOs have similar ages, and are more evolved than Ophiuchus/Taurus YSOs.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    With JWST, new opportunities to study the evolution of galaxies in the early Universe are emerging. Spitzer constraints on rest-optical properties of z ≳ 7 galaxies demonstrated the power of using galaxy stellar masses and star formation histories (SFHs) to indirectly infer the cosmic star formation history. However, only the brightest individual z ≳ 8 objects could be detected with Spitzer, making it difficult to robustly constrain activity at z ≳ 10. Here, we leverage the greatly improved rest-optical sensitivity of JWST at z ≳ 8 to constrain the ages of seven UV-bright ($M_{\rm uv}\lesssim -19.5$) galaxies selected to lie at z ∼ 8.5–11, then investigate implications for z ≳ 15 star formation. We infer the properties of individual objects with two spectral energy distribution modelling codes, then infer a distribution of ages for bright z ∼ 8.5–11 galaxies. We find a median age of ∼20 Myr, younger than that inferred at z ∼ 7 with a similar analysis, consistent with an evolution towards larger specific star formation rates at early times. The age distribution suggests that only ∼3 per cent of bright z ∼ 8.5–11 galaxies would be similarly luminous at z ≳ 15, implying that the number density of brightmore »galaxies declines by at least an order of magnitude between z ∼ 8.5–11 and $z \sim 15$. This evolution is challenging to reconcile with some early JWST results suggesting the abundance of bright galaxies does not significantly decrease towards very early times, but we suggest this tension may be eased if young stellar populations form on top of older stellar components, or if bright z ∼ 15 galaxies are observed during a burst of star formation.

    « less
  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionized gas distribution and kinematics in the inner ∼ 200 pc of NGC 4546, host of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). Using GMOS−IFU observations, with a spectral coverage of 4736–6806 Å  and an angular resolution of 0.7 arcsec, we confirm that the nuclear emission is consistent with photoionization by an AGN, while the gas in the circumnuclear region may be ionized by hot low-mass evolved stars. The gas kinematics in the central region of NGC 4546 presents three components: (i) a disc with major axis oriented along a position angle of 43° ± 3°, counter rotating relative to the stellar disc; (ii) non-circular motions, evidenced by residual velocities of up to 60 km s−1, likely associated with a previous capture of a dwarf satellite by NGC 4546; and (iii) nuclear outflows in ionized gas, identified as a broad component (σ ∼ 320 km s−1) in the line profiles, with a mass outflow rate of $\dot{M}_{\rm out} = 0.3 \pm 0.1$ M⊙ yr−1 and a total mass of Mout = (9.2 ± 0.8) × 103 M⊙ in ionized gas, corresponding to less than 3 per cent of the total mass of ionized gas in the inner 200 pc of NGC 4546. The kinetic efficiency of themore »outflow is roughly 0.1 per cent, which is smaller than the outflow coupling efficiencies predicted by theoretical studies to AGN feedback become efficient in suppressing star formation in the host galaxy.

    « less
  4. ABSTRACT

    To unravel the star formation process, we present a multi-scale and multi-wavelength study of the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G333.73 + 0.37, which hosts previously known two H ii regions located at its center. Each H ii region is associated with a mid-infrared source, and is excited by a massive OB star. Two filamentary structures and a hub-filament system (HFS) associated with one H ii region are investigated in absorption using the Spitzer 8.0 μm image. The 13CO(J = 2–1) and C18O(J = 2–1) line data reveal two velocity components (around −35.5 and −33.5 km s−1) toward the IRDC, favouring the presence of two filamentary clouds at different velocities. Non-thermal (or turbulent) motions are depicted in the IRDC using the C18O line data. The spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) identified using the VVV near-infrared data traces star formation activities in the IRDC. Low-mass cores are identified toward both the H ii regions using the ALMA 1.38 mm continuum map. The VLT/NACO adaptive-optics L′-band images show the presence of at least three point-like sources and the absence of small-scale features in the inner 4000 AU around YSOs NIR31 and MIR 16 located toward the H ii regions. The H ii regions and groups of YSO are observed toward the centralmore »part of the IRDC, where the two filamentary clouds intersect. A scenario of cloud–cloud collision or converging flows in the IRDC seems to be applicable, which may explain star formation activities including HFS and massive stars.

    « less
  5. ABSTRACT We present a catalogue of 22 755 objects with slitless, optical, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The data cover ∼220 sq. arcmin to 7-orbit (∼10 ks) depth in 20 parallel pointings of the Advanced Camera for Survey’s G800L grism. The fields are located 6 arcmin away from 10 massive galaxy clusters in the HFF and CLASH footprints. 13 of the fields have ancillary HST imaging from these or other programs to facilitate a large number of applications, from studying metal distributions at z ∼ 0.5, to quasars at z ∼ 4, to the star formation histories of hundreds of galaxies in between. The spectroscopic catalogue has a median redshift of 〈z〉 = 0.60 with a median uncertainty of $\Delta z / (1+z)\lesssim 2{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at $F814\mathit{ W}\lesssim 23$ AB. Robust continuum detections reach a magnitude fainter. The 5 σ limiting line flux is $f_{\rm lim}\approx 5\times 10^{-17}\rm ~erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}$ and half of all sources have 50 per cent of pixels contaminated at ≲1 per cent. All sources have 1D and 2D spectra, line fluxes/uncertainties and identifications, redshift probability distributions, spectral models, and derived narrow-band emission-line maps from the Grism Redshift and Line Analysis tool (grizli). We provide other basic sample characterizations,more »show data examples, and describe sources and potential investigations of interest. All data and products will be available online along with software to facilitate their use.« less