skip to main content

Title: DC electric fields in electrode-free glass vapor cell by photoillumination

We demonstrate laser induced DC electric fields in an all-glass vapor cell without bulk or thin film electrodes. The spatial field distribution is mapped by Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectroscopy. The fields are generated by a photoelectric effect and allow DC electric field tuning of up to 0.8 V/cm within the Rydberg EIT probe region. We explain the measured with a boundary-value electrostatic model. This work may inspire new approaches for DC electric field control in designing miniaturized atomic vapor cell devices. Limitations and other charge effects are also discussed.

Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1707377
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10132113
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Volume:
28
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 3676
ISSN:
1094-4087; OPEXFF
Publisher:
Optical Society of America
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We study Λ-type Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) on the Rb D2 transition in a buffer-gas-free thermal vapor cell without anti-relaxation coating. Experimental data show well-resolved features due to velocity-selective optical pumping and one EIT resonance. The Zeeman splitting of the EIT line in magnetic fields up to 12 Gauss is investigated. One Zeeman component is free of the first-order shift and its second-order shift agrees well with theory. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this magnetic-field-insensitive EIT resonance is reduced due to Doppler narrowing, scales linearly in Rabi frequency over the range studied, and reaches about 100 kHz at the lowest powers. These observations agree with an analytic model for a Doppler-broadened medium developed in (Javan et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 66 013805; Lee et al 2003 Appl. Phys. B, Lasers Opt. (Germany) B 76 , 33–9; Taichenachev et al 2000 JETP Lett. 72 , 119). Numerical simulation using the Lindblad equation reveals that the transverse laser intensity distribution and two Λ-EIT systems must be included to fully account for the measured line width and line shape of the signals. Ground-state decoherence, caused by effects that include residual optical frequency fluctuations, atom-wall and trace-gas collisions, ismore »discussed.« less
  2. Using electric fields to control crystallization processes shows a strong potential for improving pharmaceuticals, but these field effects are not yet fully explored nor understood. This study investigates how the application of alternating high electric fields can influence the crystallization kinetics as well as the final crystal product, with a focus on the possible difference between alternating (ac) and static (dc) type fields applied to vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), a molecular system with field-induced polymorphism. Relative to ac fields, static electric fields lead to more severe accumulation of impurity ions near the electrodes, possibly affecting the crystallization behavior. By tuning the amplitude and frequency of the electric field, the crystallization rate can be modified, and the crystallization outcome can be guided to form one or the other polymorph with high purity, analogous to the findings derived from dc field experiments. Additionally, it is found that low-frequency ac fields reduce the induction time, promote nucleation near T g , and affect crystallization rates as in the dc case. Consistency is also observed for the Avrami parameters n derived from ac and dc field experiments. Therefore, it appears safe to conclude that ac fields can replicate the effects seen using dc fields,more »which is advantageous for samples with mobile charges and the resulting conductivity.« less
  3. We show that surface interactions can vectorially structure the three-dimensional polarization field of a ferroelectric fluid. The contact between a ferroelectric nematic liquid crystal and a surface with in-plane polarity generates a preferred in-plane orientation of the polarization field at that interface. This is a route to the formation of fluid or glassy monodomains of high polarization without the need for electric field poling. For example, unidirectional buffing of polyimide films on planar surfaces to give quadrupolar in-plane anisotropy also induces macroscopic in-plane polar order at the surfaces, enabling the formation of a variety of azimuthal polar director structures in the cell interior, including uniform and twisted states. In a π-twist cell, obtained with antiparallel, unidirectional buffing on opposing surfaces, we demonstrate three distinct modes of ferroelectric nematic electro-optic response: intrinsic, viscosity-limited, field-induced molecular reorientation; field-induced motion of domain walls separating twisted states of opposite chirality; and propagation of polarization reorientation solitons from the cell plates to the cell center upon field reversal. Chirally doped ferroelectric nematics in antiparallel-rubbed cells produce Grandjean textures of helical twist that can be unwound via field-induced polar surface reorientation transitions. Fields required are in the 3-V/mm range, indicating an in-plane polar anchoring energy ofmore »w P ∼3 × 10 −3 J/m 2 .« less
  4. Polarization of optical fields is a crucial degree of freedom in the all-optical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). However, the physical origins of EIT and polarization-induced phenomena have not been well distinguished, which can lead to confusion in associated applications such as slow light and optical/quantum storage. Here we study the polarization effects in various optical EIT systems. We find that a polarization mismatch between whispering gallery modes in two indirectly coupled resonators can induce a narrow transparency window in the transmission spectrum resembling the EIT lineshape. However, such polarization-induced transparency (PIT) is distinct from EIT: It originates from strong polarization rotation effects and shows a unidirectional feature. The coexistence of PIT and EIT provides additional routes for the manipulation of light flow in optical resonator systems.

  5. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and theory of electric fieldEinduced non-linear magnetoelectric (NLME) effects in single crystal platelets of ferrimagnetic M-type strontium aluminum hexagonal ferrite. Using microwave measurement techniques, it was found that a DC electric field along the hexagonal c-axis results in significant changes in the saturation magnetization and uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy field and these changes are proportional to the square of the applied static electric field. The NLME effects were present with or without an external bias magnetic field. TheE-induced variation in magnetic order parameters is attributed to weakening of magnetic exchange and spin–orbit interactions since conduction electrons in the ferrite are effectively excluded from both interactions while being in transit from one Fe ion to another. We present a phenomenological theory which considers magneto-bielectric effects characterized by a quadratic term in electric fieldEin the free energy density. The coefficients for the NLME coupling terms have been calculated from experimental data and they do show variations with the Al substitution level and the largest rates of change of the saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant change with the applied power were observed for x = 0.4. It was also clear from the study that strength of the NLME effectmore »does not depend on the amount Al substitution, but critically depends on the electrical conductivity of the sample with the highest NLME coefficients estimated for the sample with the highest conductivity. Results of this work are of importance for a new family of electric field tunable, miniature, high frequency ferrite devices.

    « less