skip to main content

Title: Tight decomposition functions for mixed monotonicity
Mixed monotonicity is a property of a system’s vector field that says that the vector field admits a decomposition function, in a lifted space, that has some order preserving properties. It is recently shown that this property allows one to efficiently over-approximate the system’s onestep reachable set with a hyperinterval, which is obtained by evaluating the vector field’s decomposition function at two points. Such decomposition functions are usually not unique and some decompositions may not be tight in the sense that the resulting hyperintervals are not the smallest ones that contain the exact one-step reachable set, which leads to conservative over-approximation. In this paper, we show that for a general class of functions, there exists a tight decomposition, which can be implicitly constructed as the solution of certain optimization problems. This implies that any function from Rn to Rm (hence any forward complete system) is mixed-monotone. However, the usefulness of the constructed tight decomposition functions is limited by the fact that it might not be possible to evaluate them efficiently. We show that under certain conditions, the tight decompositions can reduce to a function with explicit expression, which can be directly evaluated. This result suggests that it is not mixed monotonicity itself, more » but other extra properties, which lead to explicitly evaluatable decomposition functions, that enable efficient and tight hyperinterval over-approximationof reachable sets. « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A graph G is called {\em self-ordered} (a.k.a asymmetric) if the identity permutation is its only automorphism. Equivalently, there is a unique isomorphism from G to any graph that is isomorphic to G. We say that G=(VE) is {\em robustly self-ordered}if the size of the symmetric difference between E and the edge-set of the graph obtained by permuting V using any permutation :VV is proportional to the number of non-fixed-points of . In this work, we initiate the study of the structure, construction and utility of robustly self-ordered graphs. We show that robustly self-ordered bounded-degree graphs exist (in abundance), and that they can be constructed efficiently, in a strong sense. Specifically, given the index of a vertex in such a graph, it is possible to find all its neighbors in polynomial-time (i.e., in time that is poly-logarithmic in the size of the graph). We provide two very different constructions, in tools and structure. The first, a direct construction, is based on proving a sufficient condition for robust self-ordering, which requires that an auxiliary graph, on {\em pairs} of vertices of the original graph, is expanding. In this case the original graph is (not only robustly self-ordered but) also expanding. Themore »second construction proceeds in three steps: It boosts the mere existence of robustly self-ordered graphs, which provides explicit graphs of sublogarithmic size, to an efficient construction of polynomial-size graphs, and then, repeating it again, to exponential-size(robustly self-ordered) graphs that are locally constructible. This construction can yield robustly self-ordered graphs that are either expanders or highly disconnected, having logarithmic size connected components. We also consider graphs of unbounded degree, seeking correspondingly unbounded robustness parameters. We again demonstrate that such graphs (of linear degree)exist (in abundance), and that they can be constructed efficiently, in a strong sense. This turns out to require very different tools. Specifically, we show that the construction of such graphs reduces to the construction of non-malleable two-source extractors with very weak parameters but with some additional natural features. We actually show two reductions, one simpler than the other but yielding a less efficient construction when combined with the known constructions of extractors. We demonstrate that robustly self-ordered bounded-degree graphs are useful towards obtaining lower bounds on the query complexity of testing graph properties both in the bounded-degree and the dense graph models. Indeed, their robustness offers efficient, local and distance preserving reductions from testing problems on ordered structures (like sequences) to the unordered (effectively unlabeled) graphs. One of the results that we obtain, via such a reduction, is a subexponential separation between the query complexities of testing and tolerant testing of graph properties in the bounded-degree graph model. Changes to previous version: We retract the claims made in our initial posting regarding the construction of non-malleable two-source extractors (which are quasi-orthogonal) as well as the claims about the construction of relocation-detecting codes (see Theorems 1.5 and 1.6 in the original version). The source of trouble is a fundamental flaw in the proof of Lemma 9.7 (in the original version), which may as well be wrong. Hence, the original Section 9 was omitted, except that the original Section 9.3 was retained as a new Section 8.3. The original Section 8 appears as Section 8.0 and 8.1, and Section 8.2 is new.« less
  2. Abstract The classical serendipity and mixed finite element spaces suffer from poor approximation on nondegenerate, convex quadrilaterals. In this paper, we develop families of direct serendipity and direct mixed finite element spaces, which achieve optimal approximation properties and have minimal local dimension. The set of local shape functions for either the serendipity or mixed elements contains the full set of scalar or vector polynomials of degree r , respectively, defined directly on each element (i.e., not mapped from a reference element). Because there are not enough degrees of freedom for global $$H^1$$ H 1 or $$H(\text {div})$$ H ( div ) conformity, exactly two supplemental shape functions must be added to each element when $$r\ge 2$$ r ≥ 2 , and only one when $$r=1$$ r = 1 . The specific choice of supplemental functions gives rise to different families of direct elements. These new spaces are related through a de Rham complex. For index $$r\ge 1$$ r ≥ 1 , the new families of serendipity spaces $${\mathscr {DS}}_{r+1}$$ DS r + 1 are the precursors under the curl operator of our direct mixed finite element spaces, which can be constructed to have reduced or full $$H(\text {div})$$ H (more »div ) approximation properties. One choice of direct serendipity supplements gives the precursor of the recently introduced Arbogast–Correa spaces (SIAM J Numer Anal 54:3332–3356, 2016. 10.1137/15M1013705 ). Other fully direct serendipity supplements can be defined without the use of mappings from reference elements, and these give rise in turn to fully direct mixed spaces. Our development is constructive, so we are able to give global bases for our spaces. Numerical results are presented to illustrate their properties.« less
  3. The needs of a business (e.g., hiring) may require the use of certain features that are critical in a way that any discrimination arising due to them should be exempted. In this work, we propose a novel information-theoretic decomposition of the total discrimination (in a counterfactual sense) into a non-exempt component, which quantifies the part of the discrimination that cannot be accounted for by the critical features, and an exempt component, which quantifies the remaining discrimination. Our decomposition enables selective removal of the non-exempt component if desired. We arrive at this decomposition through examples and counterexamples that enable us to first obtain a set of desirable properties that any measure of non-exempt discrimination should satisfy. We then demonstrate that our proposed quantification of non-exempt discrimination satisfies all of them. This decomposition leverages a body of work from information theory called Partial Information Decomposition (PID). We also obtain an impossibility result showing that no observational measure of non-exempt discrimination can satisfy all of the desired properties, which leads us to relax our goals and examine alternative observational measures that satisfy only some of these properties. We then perform a case study using one observational measure to show how one might trainmore »a model allowing for exemption of discrimination due to critical features.« less
  4. The noise sensitivity of a Boolean function f: {0,1}^n - > {0,1} is one of its fundamental properties. For noise parameter delta, the noise sensitivity is denoted as NS_{delta}[f]. This quantity is defined as follows: First, pick x = (x_1,...,x_n) uniformly at random from {0,1}^n, then pick z by flipping each x_i independently with probability delta. NS_{delta}[f] is defined to equal Pr [f(x) != f(z)]. Much of the existing literature on noise sensitivity explores the following two directions: (1) Showing that functions with low noise-sensitivity are structured in certain ways. (2) Mathematically showing that certain classes of functions have low noise sensitivity. Combined, these two research directions show that certain classes of functions have low noise sensitivity and therefore have useful structure. The fundamental importance of noise sensitivity, together with this wealth of structural results, motivates the algorithmic question of approximating NS_{delta}[f] given an oracle access to the function f. We show that the standard sampling approach is essentially optimal for general Boolean functions. Therefore, we focus on estimating the noise sensitivity of monotone functions, which form an important subclass of Boolean functions, since many functions of interest are either monotone or can be simply transformed into a monotone functionmore »(for example the class of unate functions consists of all the functions that can be made monotone by reorienting some of their coordinates [O'Donnell, 2014]). Specifically, we study the algorithmic problem of approximating NS_{delta}[f] for monotone f, given the promise that NS_{delta}[f] >= 1/n^{C} for constant C, and for delta in the range 1/n <= delta <= 1/2. For such f and delta, we give a randomized algorithm performing O((min(1,sqrt{n} delta log^{1.5} n))/(NS_{delta}[f]) poly (1/epsilon)) queries and approximating NS_{delta}[f] to within a multiplicative factor of (1 +/- epsilon). Given the same constraints on f and delta, we also prove a lower bound of Omega((min(1,sqrt{n} delta))/(NS_{delta}[f] * n^{xi})) on the query complexity of any algorithm that approximates NS_{delta}[f] to within any constant factor, where xi can be any positive constant. Thus, our algorithm's query complexity is close to optimal in terms of its dependence on n. We introduce a novel descending-ascending view of noise sensitivity, and use it as a central tool for the analysis of our algorithm. To prove lower bounds on query complexity, we develop a technique that reduces computational questions about query complexity to combinatorial questions about the existence of "thin" functions with certain properties. The existence of such "thin" functions is proved using the probabilistic method. These techniques also yield new lower bounds on the query complexity of approximating other fundamental properties of Boolean functions: the total influence and the bias.« less
  5. A Boolean {\em $k$-monotone} function defined over a finite poset domain ${\cal D}$ alternates between the values $0$ and $1$ at most $k$ times on any ascending chain in ${\cal D}$. Therefore, $k$-monotone functions are natural generalizations of the classical {\em monotone} functions, which are the {\em $1$-monotone} functions. Motivated by the recent interest in $k$-monotone functions in the context of circuit complexity and learning theory, and by the central role that monotonicity testing plays in the context of property testing, we initiate a systematic study of $k$-monotone functions, in the property testing model. In this model, the goal is to distinguish functions that are $k$-monotone (or are close to being $k$-monotone) from functions that are far from being $k$-monotone. Our results include the following: \begin{enumerate} \item We demonstrate a separation between testing $k$-monotonicity and testing monotonicity, on the hypercube domain $\{0,1\}^d$, for $k\geq 3$; \item We demonstrate a separation between testing and learning on $\{0,1\}^d$, for $k=\omega(\log d)$: testing $k$-monotonicity can be performed with $2^{O(\sqrt d \cdot \log d\cdot \log{1/\eps})}$ queries, while learning $k$-monotone functions requires $2^{\Omega(k\cdot \sqrt d\cdot{1/\eps})}$ queries (Blais et al. (RANDOM 2015)). \item We present a tolerant test for functions $f\colon[n]^d\to \{0,1\}$ with complexity independent ofmore »$n$, which makes progress on a problem left open by Berman et al. (STOC 2014). \end{enumerate} Our techniques exploit the testing-by-learning paradigm, use novel applications of Fourier analysis on the grid $[n]^d$, and draw connections to distribution testing techniques.« less