skip to main content

Title: Discrete Time Synchronization Modeling for Active Rectifiers in Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Active rectifiers in wireless power transfer systems exhibit many benefits compared to diode rectifiers, including increased efficiency, controllable impedance, and regulation capability. To achieve these benefits, the receivers must synchronize their switching frequency to the transmitter to avoid sub-fundamental beat frequency oscillations. Without additional communication, the receiver must synchronize to locally-sensed signals, such as voltages and currents induced in the power stage by the transmitter. However, the waveforms in the receiver are dependent on both the transmitter and receiver operation, resulting in an internal feedback between sensing and synchronization which prohibits the use of traditional phase-locked-loop design techniques. In this digest, a discrete time state space model is developed and used to derive a small signal model of these interactions for the purpose of designing stable closed-loop synchronization control. A prototype 150 kHz wireless power transfer converter is used to experimentally validate the modeling, showcasing stable synchronization.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 8
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    In wireless power transfer systems, active rectifiers demonstrate improved efficiency and regulation capability. To enable impedance or output regulation, ensure stable operation, and maximize the efficiency, switching actions of the rectifier have to be synchronized with the magnetic field generated from the transmitter coil. This work presents an implementation of a phase- locked-loop synchronization controller using commercial components, including a low-cost microcontroller. A discrete-time small-signal model is used to derive the transfer function of the inherent feedback and design a compensator stabilizing the synchronization loop. Large-signal state-space modeling is used to design a high-efficiency, soft-switching, 6.78MHz power stage. A low-profile, 40W, GaN-based rectifier prototype is designed and built to experimentally verify the ability to synchronize and achieve high efficiency due to soft-switching. 
    more » « less
  2. Active rectifiers enhance WPT systems via tunability, high efficiency, and low waveform distortion. However, utilizing these benefits requires that two circuit characteristics are managed simultaneously: the switching frequency must be synchronized to the transmitter and the output must be regulated. Furthermore, the fundamental benefit of impedance tunability inherent to the active rectifier necessitates that this dual-objective control problem remains stable over a wide range of operating points. Either control loop can be designed in isolation, and under this premise, this work contributes a closed form derivation for the cross-coupling behaviors in the control architecture for a 7-level switched capacitor WPT system. Finally, regions of attenuated cross-coupling effects are identified and used to experimentally demonstrate wide-range control with stable output regulation and frequency synchronization. 
    more » « less
  3. To avoid interruption of experiment and risk of infection, wireless power transfer (WPT) techniques have been used to eliminate the bulky wires and batteries attached to the animals in rodent electrophysiological applications for long-term in-vivo electrophysiological recordings. Headstage-based neuromodulation device has become one of the most popular methods for neural stimulation in recent times. In this work, a wireless power transfer system is designed which provides a constant power to a headstage based optogenetic stimulator. The proposed research is composed of two parts: i) a unidirectional 28 cm × 21 cm phased array transmitter antenna, and ii) an electrically small bi-directional 2.4 cm × 2.4 cm receiver antenna. A phased array transmitter antenna is designed to provide a uniform power transmission over the 27 cm × 23 cm × 16 cm rat behavioral cage area. The proposed WPT scheme utilizes a near-field power transmission scheme at 2.4 GHz frequency. Simulation results show that the transmitter antenna achieves a -24 dB and receiver antenna achieves a −27 dB return loss (S 11 ) at the resonating frequency. The proposed WPT system shows a maximum of 24.5% power transfer efficiency (PTE) when the receiver is in the center position and is 10 cm distance apart from the transmitter, which is much higher compared to the other state-of-the-art works. The transmitter antenna steers beam from −21° to 27° in ϕ axis and −108° to 74° in θ axis which covers the maximum 6.27 cm 2 area of the cage. The preliminary simulation results of the proposed WPT module show a better prospect for future optogenetics based applications. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Contactless ultrasound power transfer (UPT) has emerged as one of the promising techniques for wireless power transfer. Physical processes supporting UPT include the vibrations at a transmitting/acoustic source element, acoustic wave propagation, piezoelectric transduction of elastic vibrations at a receiving element, and acoustic-structure interactions at the surfaces of the transmitting and receiving elements. A novel mechanism using a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transmitter is proposed for enhanced power transfer in UPT systems. The HIFU source is used for actuating a finite-size piezoelectric disk receiver. The underlying physics of the proposed system includes the coupling of the nonlinear acoustic field with structural responses of the receiver, which leads to spatial resonances and the appearance of higher harmonics during wave propagation in a medium. Acoustic nonlinearity due to wave kinematics in the HIFU-UPT system is modeled by taking into account the effects of diffraction, absorption, and nonlinearity in the medium. Experimentally-validated acoustic-structure interaction formulation is employed in a finite element based multiphysics model. The results show that the HIFU high-level excitation can cause disproportionately large responses in the piezoelectric receiver if the frequency components in the nonlinear acoustic field coincide with the resonant frequencies of the receiver. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    In wireless power transfer (WPT) applications, the multi-level switched capacitor topology achieves significant advantages in terms of efficiency, system loading, THD, and output regulation. The topology requires dual-loop control in order to harness these benefits. First, a small signal discrete time model for the 7-level rectifier WPT system is developed. Then, a control loop is designed that enables the rectifier to regulate DC load voltage by varying its modulation scheme. Next, the WPT carrier frequency is sensed and a phase-locked loop is used in combination with the small signal power stage model to design a closed-loop controller that synchronizes frequency and regulates control phase through adjustments of the switching period. Finally, cross-coupling interactions between the two control loops are modeled, and stable dual-loop operation is shown. 
    more » « less