skip to main content


Title: Transport of Topological Semimetals
Three-dimensional (3D) topological semimetals represent a new class of topological matters. The study of this family of materials has been at the frontiers of condensed matter physics, and many breakthroughs have been made. Several topological semimetal phases, including Dirac semimetals (DSMs), Weyl semimetals (WSMs), nodal-line semimetals (NLSMs), and triple-point semimetals, have been theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. The low-energy excitation around the Dirac/Weyl nodal points, nodal line, or triply degenerated nodal point can be viewed as emergent relativistic fermions. Experimental studies have shown that relativistic fermions can result in a rich variety of exotic transport properties, e.g., extremely large magnetoresistance, the chiral anomaly, and the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. In this review, we first briefly introduce band structural characteristics of each topological semimetal phase, then review the current studies on quantum oscillations and exotic transport properties of various topological semimetals, and finally provide a perspective of this area.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1707502
NSF-PAR ID:
10139910
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Annual Review of Materials Research
Volume:
49
Issue:
1
ISSN:
1531-7331
Page Range / eLocation ID:
207 to 252
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Topological semimetals represent a novel class of quantum materials displaying non‐trivial topological states that host Dirac/Weyl fermions. The intersection of Dirac/Weyl points gives rise to essential properties in a wide range of innovative transport phenomena, including extreme magnetoresistance, high mobilities, weak antilocalization, electron hydrodynamics, and various electro‐optical phenomena. In this study, the electronic, transport, phonon scattering, and interrelationships are explored in single crystals of the topological semimetal HfAs2. It reveals a weak antilocalization effect at low temperatures with high carrier density, which is attributed to perfectly compensated topological bulk and surface states. The angle‐resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results show anisotropic Fermi surfaces and surface states indicative of the topological semimetal, further confirmed by first‐principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Moreover, the lattice dynamics in HfAs2are investigated both with the Raman scattering and density functional theory. The phonon dispersion, density of states, lattice thermal conductivity, and the phonon lifetimes are computed to support the experimental findings. The softening of phonons, the broadening of Raman modes, and the reduction of phonon lifetimes with temperature suggest the enhancement of phonon anharmonicity in this new topological material, which is crucial for boosting the thermoelectric performance of topological semimetals.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Nodal‐line semimetals (NLSs) represent a new type of topological semimetallic phase beyond Weyl and Dirac semimetals in the sense that they host closed loops or open curves of band degeneracies in the Brillouin zone. Parallel to the classification of type‐I and type‐II Weyl semimetals, there are two types of NLSs. The type‐I NLS phase has been proposed and realized in many compounds, whereas the exotic type‐II NLS phase that strongly violates Lorentz symmetry has remained elusive. First‐principles calculations show that Mg3Bi2is a material candidate for the type‐II NLS. The band crossing is close to the Fermi level and exhibits the type‐II nature of the nodal line in this material. Spin–orbit coupling generates only a small energy gap (≈35 meV) at the nodal points and does not negate the band dispersion of Mg3Bi2that yields the type‐II nodal line. Based on this prediction, Mg3Bi2single crystals are synthesized and the presence of the type‐II nodal lines in the material is confirmed. The angle‐resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements agree well with the first‐principles results below the Fermi level and thus strongly suggest Mg3Bi2as an ideal material platform for studying the as‐yet unstudied properties of type‐II nodal‐line semimetals.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Proposed mechanisms for large intrinsic anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic topological semimetals include diverging Berry curvatures of Weyl nodes, anticrossing nodal rings or points of non-trivial bands. Here we demonstrate that a half-topological semimetal (HTS) state near a topological critical point can provide an alternative mechanism for a large AHE via systematic studies on an antiferromagnetic (AFM) half-Heusler compound TbPdBi. We not only observe a large AHE with tanΘH≈ 2 in its field-driven ferromagnetic (FM) phase, but also find a distinct Hall resistivity peak in its canted AFM phase. Moreover, we observe a large negative magnetoresistance with a value of ~98%. Our in-depth theoretical modelling indicates that these exotic transport properties originate from the HTS state which exhibits Berry curvature cancellation between the trivial spin-up and nontrivial spin-down bands. Our study offers alternative strategies for improved materials design for spintronics and other applications.

     
    more » « less
  4. Magnetic topological semimetals allow for an effective control of the topological electronic states by tuning the spin configuration. Among them, Weyl nodal line semimetals are thought to have the greatest tunability, yet they are the least studied experimentally due to the scarcity of material candidates. Here, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and quantum oscillation measurements, together with density functional theory calculations, we identify the square-net compound EuGa4as a magnetic Weyl nodal ring semimetal, in which the line nodes form closed rings near the Fermi level. The Weyl nodal ring states show distinct Landau quantization with clear spin splitting upon application of a magnetic field. At 2 K in a field of 14 T, the transverse magnetoresistance of EuGa4exceeds 200,000%, which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of other known magnetic topological semimetals. Our theoretical model suggests that the non-saturating magnetoresistance up to 40 T arises as a consequence of the nodal ring state. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Graphene, with its two linearly dispersing Dirac points with opposite windings, is the minimal topological nodal configuration in the hexagonal Brillouin zone. Topological semimetals with higher-order nodes beyond the Dirac points have recently attracted considerable interest due to their rich chiral physics and their potential for the design of next-generation integrated devices. Here we report the experimental realization of the topological semimetal with quadratic nodes in a photonic microring lattice. Our structure hosts a robust second-order node at the center of the Brillouin zone and two Dirac points at the Brillouin zone boundary—the second minimal configuration, next to graphene, that satisfies the Nielsen–Ninomiya theorem. The symmetry-protected quadratic nodal point, together with the Dirac points, leads to the coexistence of massive and massless components in a hybrid chiral particle. This gives rise to unique transport properties, which we demonstrate by directly imaging simultaneous Klein and anti-Klein tunnelling in the microring lattice.

     
    more » « less