skip to main content

Title: MoS 2 pixel arrays for real-time photoluminescence imaging of redox molecules
Measuring the behavior of redox-active molecules in space and time is crucial for understanding chemical and biological systems and for developing new technologies. Optical schemes are noninvasive and scalable, but usually have a slow response compared to electrical detection methods. Furthermore, many fluorescent molecules for redox detection degrade in brightness over long exposure times. Here, we show that the photoluminescence of “pixel” arrays of monolayer MoS 2 can image spatial and temporal changes in redox molecule concentration. Because of the strong dependence of MoS 2 photoluminescence on doping, changes in the local chemical potential substantially modulate the photoluminescence of MoS 2 , with a sensitivity of 0.9 mV / Hz on a 5 μm × 5 μm pixel, corresponding to better than parts-per-hundred changes in redox molecule concentration down to nanomolar concentrations at 100-ms frame rates. This provides a new strategy for visualizing chemical reactions and biomolecules with a two-dimensional material screen.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1719875
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10146299
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Volume:
5
Issue:
11
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
eaat9476
ISSN:
2375-2548
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Several metal-free, nonaqueous, disproportionation redox-flow-battery chemistries based on electrochemically active organic molecules are presented. The electrochemistry of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), a polycyclic aromatic compound, involves two reversible redox couples separated by more than 3 V, which are associated with electrochemical disproportionation of the neutral molecule. Nonaqueous solvents are investigated with the dual aims of realizing this high voltage in a battery cell and maximizing active-species solubility. Functionalized DPA analogues are synthesized and shown to exhibit electrochemical responses similar to pristine DPA; appending diethyleneglycoxy esters on each phenyl group to form DdPA (9,10-Bis(4-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)carbonyl-phenyl)anthracene) improves solubility over DPA by a factor of 20more »in acetonitrile and 5 in dimethoxyethane. The 0.21 M maximum concentration of DdPA in dimethoxyethane suggests an energy density of 8 Wh l−1, which begins to approach the energy density of state-of-the-art aqueous RFBs. Charge/discharge of a stagnant one-dimensional cell delivers the highest cell voltages from an organic single-active-species RFB chemistry yet reported. Energy and power efficiencies for DPA in dimethoxyethane and DdPA in acetonitrile are similar to nonaqueous vanadium acetylacetonate in cells of similar construction.

    « less
  2. Electrochemical reactions at nanoscale structures possess unique characteristics, e.g. fast mass transport, high signal-to-noise ratio at low concentration, and insignificant ohmic losses even at low electrolyte concentrations. These properties motivate the fabrication of high density, laterally ordered arrays of nanopores, embedding vertically stacked metal–insulator–metal electrode structures and exhibiting precisely controlled pore size and interpore spacing for use in redox cycling. These nanoscale recessed ring-disk electrode (RRDE) arrays exhibit current amplification factors, AF RC , as large as 55-fold with Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2/3+ , indicative of capture efficiencies at the top and bottom electrodes, Φ t,b , exceeding 99%.more »Finite element simulations performed to investigate the concentration distribution of redox species and to assess operating characteristics are in excellent agreement with experiment. AF RC increases as the pore diameter, at constant pore spacing, increases in the range 200–500 nm and as the pore spacing, at constant pore diameter, decreases in the range 1000–460 nm. Optimized nanoscale RRDE arrays exhibit a linear current response with concentration ranging from 0.1 μM to 10 mM and a small capacitive current with scan rate up to 100 V s −1 . At the lowest concentrations, the average pore occupancy is 〈 n 〉 ∼ 0.13 molecule establishing productive electrochemical signals at occupancies at and below the single molecule level in these nanoscale RRDE arrays.« less
  3. Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising next-generation electrochemical cells. However, shuttling of lithium polysulfide intermediates and sluggish kinetics in random deposition of lithium sulfide (Li 2 S) have significantly degraded their capacity, rate and cycling performance. Herein, few-layered MoS 2 nanosheets enriched with sulfur vacancies are anchored inside hollow mesoporous carbon (MoS 2−x /HMC) via S–C bonding and proposed as a novel functional mediator for Li–S batteries. Ultrathin MoS 2 sheets with abundant sulfur vacancies have strong chemical affinity to polysulfides and in the meantime catalyze their fast redox conversion with enhanced reaction kinetics asmore »proved by experimental observations and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At a current density of 1C, the MoS 2−x /HMC-S composite cathode exhibits a high initial capacity of 945 mA h g −1 with a high retained capacity of 526 mA h g −1 and a coulombic efficiency of nearly 100% after 500 cycles. The present work sheds light on the design of novel functional electrodes for next-generation electrochemical cells based on a simple yet effective vacancy engineering strategy.« less
  4. Zero-mode waveguides (ZMW) have the potential to be powerful confinement tools for studying electron transfer dynamics at single molecule occupancy conditions. Flavin mononucleotide contains an isoalloxazine chromophore, which is fluorescent in the oxidized state (FMN) while the reduced state (FMNH 2 ) exhibits dramatically lower light emission, i.e. a dark-state. This allows fluorescence emission to report the redox state of single FMN molecules, an observation that has been used previously to study single electron transfer events in surface-immobilized flavins and flavoenzymes, e.g. sarcosine oxidase, by direct wide-field imaging of ZMW arrays. Single molecule electron transfer dynamics have now been extendedmore »to the study of freely diffusing molecules using fluorescence measurements of Au ZMWs under single occupancy conditions. The Au in the ZMW serves both as an optical cladding layer and as the working electrode for potential control, thereby accessing single molecule electron transfer dynamics at μM concentrations. Consistent with expectations, the probability of observing single reduced molecules increases as the potential is scanned negative, E appl < E eq , and the probability of observing emitting oxidized molecules increases at E appl > E eq . Different single molecules exhibit different electron transfer properties as reflected in the position of E eq and the distribution of E eq among a population of FMN molecules. Two types of actively-controlled electroluminescence experiments were used: chronofluorometry experiments, in which the potential is alternately stepped between oxidizing and reducing potentials, and cyclic potential sweep fluorescence experiments, analogous to cyclic voltammetry, these latter experiments exhibiting a dramatic scan rate dependence with the slowest scan rates showing distinct intermediate states that are stable over a range of potentials. These states are assigned to flavosemiquinone species that are stabilized in the special environment of the ZMW nanopore.« less
  5. New optical materials with efficient luminescence and scintillation properties have drawn a great deal of attention due to the demand for optoelectronic devices and medical theranostics. Their nanomaterials are expected to reduce the cost while incrementing the efficiency for potential lighting and scintillator applications. In this study, we have developed praseodymium-doped lanthanum hafnate (La 2 Hf 2 O 7 :Pr 3+ ) pyrochlore nanoparticles (NPs) using a combined co-precipitation and relatively low-temperature molten salt synthesis procedure. XRD and Raman investigations confirmed ordered pyrochlore phase for the as-synthesized undoped and Pr 3+ -doped La 2 Hf 2 O 7 NPs. Themore »emission profile displayed the involvement of both the 3 P 0 and 1 D 2 states in the photoluminescence process, however, the intensity of the emission from the 1 D 2 states was found to be higher than that from the 3 P 0 states. This can have a huge implication on the design of novel red phosphors for possible application in solid-state lighting. As a function of the Pr 3+ concentration, we found that the 0.1%Pr 3+ doped La 2 Hf 2 O 7 NPs possessed the strongest emission intensity with a quantum yield of 20.54 ± 0.1%. The concentration quenching, in this case, is mainly induced by the cross-relaxation process 3 P 0 + 3 H 4 → 1 D 2 + 3 H 6 . Emission kinetics studies showed that the fast decaying species arise because of the Pr 3+ ions occupying the Hf 4+ sites, whereas the slow decaying species can be attributed to the Pr 3+ ions occupying the La 3+ sites in the pyrochlore structure of La 2 Hf 2 O 7 . X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) showed a strong red-light emission, which showed that the material is a promising scintillator for radiation detection. In addition, the photon counts were found to be much higher when the NPs are exposed to X-rays when compared to ultraviolet light. Altogether, these La 2 Hf 2 O 7 :Pr 3+ NPs have great potential as a good down-conversion phosphor as well as scintillator material.« less