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  1. Abstract

    Adsorption plays vital roles in many processes including catalysis, sensing, and nanomaterials design. However, quantifying molecular adsorption, especially at the nanoscale, is challenging, hindering the exploration of its utilization on nanomaterials that possess heterogeneity across different length scales. Here we map the adsorption of nonfluorescent small molecule/ion and polymer ligands on gold nanoparticles of various morphologies in situ under ambient solution conditions, in which these ligands are critical for the particles’ physiochemical properties. We differentiate at nanometer resolution their adsorption affinities among different sites on the same nanoparticle and uncover positive/negative adsorption cooperativity, both essential for understanding adsorbate-surface interactions.more »Considering the surface density of adsorbed ligands, we further discover crossover behaviors of ligand adsorption between different particle facets, leading to a strategy and its implementation in facet-controlled synthesis of colloidal metal nanoparticles by merely tuning the concentration of a single ligand.

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  2. Abstract

    The self-organization of strongly interacting electrons into superlattice structures underlies the properties of many quantum materials. How these electrons arrange within the superlattice dictates what symmetries are broken and what ground states are stabilized. Here we show that cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) enables direct mapping of local symmetries and order at the intra-unit-cell level in the model charge-ordered system Nd1/2Sr1/2MnO3. In addition to imaging the prototypical site-centered charge order, we discover the nanoscale coexistence of an exotic intermediate state which mixes site and bond order and breaks inversion symmetry. We further show that nonlinear coupling of distinctmore »lattice modes controls the selection between competing ground states. The results demonstrate the importance of lattice coupling for understanding and manipulating the character of electronic self-organization and that cryo-STEM can reveal local order in strongly correlated systems at the atomic scale.

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  3. Abstract

    We present a mechanism for thermal cycling that does not require electricity; instead, the device functions as a heat engine and requires only a generic heat source and a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring. The SMA spring mechanically translates to a low-temperature reservoir when heated, and the subsequent cooling of the spring causes translation back to a high-temperature reservoir. The usefulness of the mechanism is displayed by performing the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), an important biological assay that requires thermal cycling for amplification of nucleic acids. The ability to perform qPCR with a generic heat source enables amore »variety of significant health diagnostic tests to be performed in resource limited settings, where electricity access may not be available or reliable. We demonstrate robust thermal cycling using a direct flame, sunlight, and electricity as heat sources, with maximum heating and cooling rates of 4.4 °C s−1and −2.7 °C s−1, respectively.

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  4. Abstract

    Both high resolution and high precision are required to quantitatively determine the atomic structure of complex nanostructured materials. However, for conventional imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic resolution with picometer precision cannot usually be achieved for weakly-scattering samples or radiation-sensitive materials, such as 2D materials. Here, we demonstrate low-dose, sub-angstrom resolution imaging with picometer precision using mixed-state electron ptychography. We show that correctly accounting for the partial coherence of the electron beam is a prerequisite for high-quality structural reconstructions due to the intrinsic partial coherence of the electron beam. The mixed-state reconstruction gains importance especially whenmore »simultaneously pursuing high resolution, high precision and large field-of-view imaging. Compared with conventional atomic-resolution STEM imaging techniques, the mixed-state ptychographic approach simultaneously provides a four-times-faster acquisition, with double the information limit at the same dose, or up to a fifty-fold reduction in dose at the same resolution.

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  5. Abstract

    Manipulating mosquito reproduction is a promising approach to reducing mosquito populations and the burden of diseases they carry. A thorough understanding of reproductive processes is necessary to develop such strategies, but little is known about how sperm are processed and prepared for fertilization within female mosquitoes. By employing cryo-electron microscopy for the first time to study sperm of the mosquitoAedes aegypti, we reveal that sperm shed their entire outer coat, the glycocalyx, within 24 hours of being stored in the female. Motility assays demonstrate that as their glycocalyx is shed in the female’s sperm storage organs, sperm transition from amore »period of dormancy to rapid motility—a critical prerequisite for sperm to reach the egg. We also show that females gradually become fertile as sperm become motile, and that oviposition behavior increases sharply after females reach peak fertility. Together, these experiments demonstrate a striking coincidence of the timelines of several reproductive events inAe. aegypti, suggesting a direct relationship between sperm modification and female reproductive capacity.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  9. Efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetically coupled materials that are integration-friendly and have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is of great interest for low-power, fast, dense magnetic storage and computing. Here, we report a distinct, giant bulk damping-like spin–orbit torque in strong-PMA ferrimagnetic Fe 100− x Tb x single layers that are integration-friendly (composition-uniform, amorphous, and sputter-deposited). For sufficiently thick layers, this bulk torque is constant in the efficiency per unit layer thickness, [Formula: see text]/ t, with a record-high value of 0.036 ± 0.008 nm −1 , and the damping-like torque efficiency [Formula: see text] achieves very large values for thick layers, up tomore »300% for 90 nm layers. This giant bulk torque by itself switches tens of nm thick Fe 100− x Tb x layers that have very strong PMA and high coercivity at current densities as low as a few MA/cm 2 . Surprisingly, for a given layer thickness, [Formula: see text] shows strong composition dependence and becomes negative for composition where the total angular momentum is oriented parallel to the magnetization rather than antiparallel. Our findings of giant bulk spin torque efficiency and intriguing torque-compensation correlation will stimulate study of such unique spin–orbit phenomena in a variety of ferrimagnetic hosts. This work paves a promising avenue for developing ultralow-power, fast, dense ferrimagnetic storage and computing devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023