skip to main content

Title: Photonic crystallization of two-dimensional MoS 2 for stretchable photodetectors
Low temperature synthesis of high quality two-dimensional (2D) materials directly on flexible substrates remains a fundamental limitation towards scalable realization of robust flexible electronics possessing the unique physical properties of atomically thin structures. Herein, we describe room temperature sputtering of uniform, stoichiometric amorphous MoS 2 and subsequent large area (>6.25 cm 2 ) photonic crystallization of 5 nm 2H-MoS 2 films in air to enable direct, scalable fabrication of ultrathin 2D photodetectors on stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The lateral photodetector devices demonstrate an average responsivity of 2.52 μW A −1 and a minimum response time of 120 ms under 515.6 nm illumination. Additionally, the surface wrinkled, or buckled, PDMS substrate with conformal MoS 2 retained the photoconductive behavior at tensile strains as high as 5.72% and over 1000 stretching cycles. The results indicate that the photonic crystallization method provides a significant advancement in incorporating high quality semiconducting 2D materials applied directly on polymer substrates for wearable and flexible electronic systems.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
13260 to 13268
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Recently, a zipper two-dimensional (2D) material Bi 2 O 2 Se belonging to the layered bismuth oxychalcogenide (Bi 2 O 2 X: X = S, Se, Te) family, has emerged as an alternate candidate to van der Waals 2D materials for high-performance electronic and optoelectronic applications. This hints towards exploring the other members of the Bi 2 O 2 X family for their true potential and bismuth oxysulfide (Bi 2 O 2 S) could be the next member for such applications. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, the scalable room-temperature chemical synthesis and near-infrared (NIR) photodetection of ultrathin Bi 2 O 2 S nanosheets. The thickness of the freestanding nanosheets was around 2–3 nm with a lateral dimension of ∼80–100 nm. A solution-processed NIR photodetector was fabricated from ultrathin Bi 2 O 2 S nanosheets. The photodetector showed high performance, under 785 nm laser illumination, with a photoresponsivity of 4 A W −1 , an external quantum efficiency of 630%, and a normalized photocurrent-to-dark-current ratio of 1.3 × 10 10 per watt with a fast response time of 100 ms. Taken together, the findings suggest that Bi 2 O 2 S nanosheets could be a promising alternative 2D materialmore »for next-generation large-area flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.« less
  2. Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) layers are suitable for visible-to-near infrared photodetection owing to their tunable optical bandgaps. Also, their superior mechanical deformability enabled by an extremely small thickness and van der Waals (vdW) assembly allows them to be structured into unconventional physical forms, unattainable with any other materials. Herein, we demonstrate a new type of 2D MoS 2 layer-based rollable photodetector that can be mechanically reconfigured while maintaining excellent geometry-invariant photo-responsiveness. Large-area (>a few cm 2 ) 2D MoS 2 layers grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were integrated on transparent and flexible substrates composed of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) by a direct solution casting method. These composite materials in three-dimensionally rollable forms exhibited a large set of intriguing photo-responsiveness, well preserving intrinsic opto-electrical characteristics of the integrated 2D MoS 2 layers; i.e. , light intensity-dependent photocurrents insensitive to illumination angles as well as highly tunable photocurrents varying with the rolling number of 2D MoS 2 layers, which were impossible to achieve with conventional photodetectors. This study provides a new design principle for converting 2D materials to three-dimensional (3D) objects of tailored functionalities and structures, significantly broadening their potential and versatility in futuristic devices.
  3. null (Ed.)
    Key properties of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are highly strain tunable, arising from bond modulation and associated reconfiguration of the energy bands around the Fermi level. Approaches to locally controlling and patterning strain have included both active and passive elastic deformation via sustained loading and templating with nanostructures. Here, by float-capturing ultrathin flakes of single-crystal 2H-MoS2 on amorphous holey silicon nitride substrates, we find that highly symmetric, high-fidelity strain patterns are formed. The hexagonally arranged holes and surface topography combine to generate highly conformal flake-substrate coverage creating patterns that match optimal centroidal Voronoi tessellation in 2D Euclidean space. Using TEM imaging and diffraction, as well as AFM topographic mapping, we determine that the substrate-driven 3D geometry of the flakes over the holes consists of symmetric, out-of-plane bowl-like deformation of up to 35 nm, with in-plane, isotropic tensile strains of up to 1.8% (measured with both selected-area diffraction and AFM). Atomistic and image simulations accurately predict spontaneous formation of the strain patterns, with van der Waals forces and substrate topography as the input parameters. These results show that predictable patterns and 3D topography can be spontaneously induced in 2D materials captured on bare, holey substrates. The method also enables electron scatteringmore »studies of precisely aligned, substrate-free strained regions in transmission mode.« less
  4. In this paper, we demonstrated large-size free-standing single-crystal β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs fabricated by the hydrogen implantation and lift-off process directly from MOCVD grown β-Ga 2 O 3 epifilms on native substrates. The optimum implantation conditions were simulated with a Monte-Carlo simulation method to obtain a high hydrogen concentration with a narrow ion distribution at the desired depth. Two as grown β-Ga 2 O 3 samples with different orientations ([100] and [001]) were used to successfully create 1.2 μm thick β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs without any physical damage. These β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs were then transfer-printed onto rigid and flexible substrates such as SiC and polyimide substrates. Various material characterization studies were performed to investigate their crystal quality, surface morphologies, optical properties, mechanical properties, and bandgaps before and after the lift-off and revealed that the good material quality was maintained. This result offers several benefits in that the thickness, doping, and size of β-Ga 2 O 3 NMs can be fully controlled. Moreover, more advanced β-Ga 2 O 3 -based NM structures such as (Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 /Ga 2 O 3 heterostructure NMs can be directly created from their bulk epitaxy substrates;more »thus this study provides a viable route for the realization of high performance β-Ga 2 O 3 NM-based electronics and optoelectronics that can be built on various substrates and platforms.« less
  5. The 2D van der Waals crystals have shown great promise as potential future electronic materials due to their atomically thin and smooth nature, highly tailorable electronic structure, and mass production compatibility through chemical synthesis. Electronic devices, such as field effect transistors (FETs), from these materials require patterning and fabrication into desired structures. Specifically, the scale up and future development of “2D”-based electronics will inevitably require large numbers of fabrication steps in the patterning of 2D semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). This is currently carried out via multiple steps of lithography, etching, and transfer. As 2D devices become more complex (e.g., numerous 2D materials, more layers, specific shapes, etc.), the patterning steps can become economically costly and time consuming. Here, we developed a method to directly synthesize a 2D semiconductor, monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), in arbitrary patterns on insulating SiO2/Si via seed-promoted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and substrate engineering. This method shows the potential of using the prepatterned substrates as a master template for the repeated growth of monolayer MoS2patterns. Our technique currently produces arbitrary monolayer MoS2patterns at a spatial resolution of 2 μm with excellent homogeneity and transistor performance (room temperature electron mobility of 30 cm2V−1s−1and on–off currentmore »ratio of 107). Extending this patterning method to other 2D materials can provide a facile method for the repeatable direct synthesis of 2D materials for future electronics and optoelectronics.

    « less