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Underwater explosion poses a significant threat to the structural integrity of ocean vehicles and platforms. Accurate prediction of the dynamic loads from an explosion and the resulting structural response is crucial to ensuring safety without overconservative design. When the distance between the explosive charge and the structure is relatively small (i.e., near-field explosion), the dynamics of the gaseous explosion product, i.e., the “bubble”, comes into play, rendering a multiphysics problem that features the interaction of the bubble, the surrounding liquid water, and the solid structure. The problem is highly nonlinear, as it involves shock waves, large deformation, yielding, contact, and possibly fracture. This paper investigates the two-way interaction between the cyclic expansion and collapse of an explosion bubble and the deformation of a thin-walled elastoplastic cylindrical shell in its vicinity. Intuitively, when a shock wave impinges on a thin cylindrical shell, the shell would collapse in the direction of shock propagation. However, some recent laboratory experiments have shown that under certain conditions the shell collapsed in a counter-intuitive mode in which the direction of collapse is perpendicular to that of shock propagation. In other words, the nearest point on the structural surface moved towards the explosion charge, despite being impacted by a compressive shock. This paper focuses on replicating this phenomenon through numerical simulation and elucidating the underlying mechanisms. A recently developed computational framework (“FIVER”) coupling a nonlinear finite element structural dynamics solver and a finite volume compressible fluid dynamics solver is used to complete this study. The solver utilizes an embedded boundary method to track the wetted surface of the structure (i.e. the fluid-structure interface), which is capable of handling large structural deformation and topological changes (e.g., fracture). The solver also adopts the level set method for tracking the bubble surface (i.e. the liquid-gas interface). The fluid-structure and liquid-gas interface conditions are enforced by constructing and solving one-dimensional multi-material Riemann problems, which naturally accommodates the propagation of shock waves across the interfaces. In this paper, mesh refinement study is made to examine the sensitivity of the results to various meshing parameters. The results show that the intermediate level of refinement is appropriate in terms of both the accuracy and the computation costs. Next, the deformation history of both the bubble and the structure are presented and analyzed to provide a detailed view of the counter-intuitive collapse mode mentioned above. We show that timewise, the structural collapse spans multiple cycles of bubble oscillation. Additional details about the time-histories of fluid pressure, structure displacement, and bubble size are presented to elucidate this dynamic bubble-structure interaction and the resulting structural failure.more » « less
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A flow vessel with an elastic wall can deform significantly due to viscous fluid flow within it, even at vanishing Reynolds number (no fluid inertia). Deformation leads to an enhancement of throughput due to the change in cross‐sectional area. The latter gives rise to a non‐constant pressure gradient in the flow‐wise direction and, hence, to a nonlinear flow rate–pressure drop relation (unlike the Hagen–Poiseuille law for a rigid tube). Many biofluids are non‐Newtonian, and are well approximated by generalized Newtonian (say, power‐law) rheological models. Consequently, we analyze the problem of steady low Reynolds number flow of a generalized Newtonian fluid through a slender elastic tube by coupling fluid lubrication theory to a structural problem posed in terms of Donnell shell theory. A perturbative approach (in the slenderness parameter) yields analytical solutions for both the flow and the deformation. Using matched asymptotics, we obtain a uniformly valid solution for the tube's radial displacement, which features both a boundary layer and a corner layer caused by localized bending near the clamped ends. In doing so, we obtain a “generalized Hagen–Poiseuille law” for soft microtubes. We benchmark the mathematical predictions against three‐dimensional two‐way coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow and deformation performed using the commercial computational engineering platform by ANSYS. The simulations show good agreement and establish the range of validity of the theory. Finally, we discuss the implications of the theory on the problem of the flow‐induced deformation of a blood vessel, which is featured in some textbooks.
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Aeromechanics of highly flexible flapping wings is a complex nonlinear fluid–structure interaction problem and, therefore, cannot be analyzed using conventional linear aeroelasticity methods. This paper presents a standalone coupled aeroelastic framework for highly flexible flapping wings in hover for micro air vehicle (MAV) applications. The MAV-scale flapping wing structure is modeled using fully nonlinear beam and shell finite elements. A potential-flow-based unsteady aerodynamic model is then coupled with the structural model to generate the coupled aeroelastic framework. Both the structural and aerodynamic models are validated independently before coupling. Instantaneous lift force and wing deflection predictions from the coupled aeroelastic simulations are compared with the force and deflection measurements (using digital image correlation) obtained from in-house flapping wing experiments at both moderate (13 Hz) and high (20 Hz) flapping frequencies. Coupled trim analysis is then performed by simultaneously solving wing response equations and vehicle trim equations until trim controls, wing elastic response, inflow and circulation converge all together. The dependence of control inputs on weight and center of gravity (cg) location of the vehicle is studied for the hovering flight case.more » « less