skip to main content

Title: The Landau Equation with the Specular Reflection Boundary Condition.
The existence and stability of the Landau equation (1936) in a general bounded domain with a physical boundary condition is a long-outstanding open problem. This work proves the global stability of the Landau equation with the Coulombic potential in a general smooth bounded domain with the specular reflection boundary condition for initial perturbations of the Maxwellian equilibrium states. The highlight of this work also comes from the low-regularity assumptions made for the initial distribution. This work generalizes the recent global stability result for the Landau equation in a periodic box (Kim et al. in Peking Math J, 2020). Our methods consist of the generalization of the wellposedness theory for the Fokker–Planck equation (Hwang et al. SIAM J Math Anal 50(2):2194–2232, 2018; Hwang et al. Arch Ration Mech Anal 214(1):183–233, 2014) and the extension of the boundary value problem to a whole space problem, as well as the use of a recent extension of De Giorgi–Nash–Moser theory for the kinetic Fokker–Planck equations (Golse et al. Ann Sc Norm Super Pisa Cl Sci 19(1):253–295, 2019) and the Morrey estimates (Bramanti et al. J Math Anal Appl 200(2):332–354, 1996) to further control the velocity derivatives, which ensures the uniqueness. Our methods provide a more » new understanding of the grazing collisions in the Landau theory for an initial-boundary value problem. « less
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We establish existence of finite energy weak solutions to the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation and the linear Landau equation near Maxwellian, in the presence of specular reflection boundary condition for general domains. Moreover, by using a method of reflection and the \begin{document}$ S_p $\end{document} estimate of [7], we prove regularity in the kinetic Sobolev spaces \begin{document}$ S_p $\end{document} and anisotropic Hölder spaces for such weak solutions. Such \begin{document}$ S_p $\end{document} regularity leads to the uniqueness of weak solutions.

  2. This work concerns the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a (strictly) subcritical fluid model for a data communication network, where file sizes are generally distributed and the network operates under a fair bandwidth-sharing policy. Here we consider fair bandwidth-sharing policies that are a slight generalization of the [Formula: see text]-fair policies introduced by Mo and Walrand [Mo J, Walrand J (2000) Fair end-to-end window-based congestion control. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networks 8(5):556–567.]. Since the year 2000, it has been a standing problem to prove stability of the data communications network model of Massoulié and Roberts [Massoulié L, Roberts J (2000) Bandwidth sharing and admission control for elastic traffic. Telecommunication Systems 15(1):185–201.], with general file sizes and operating under fair bandwidth sharing policies, when the offered load is less than capacity (subcritical conditions). A crucial step in an approach to this problem is to prove stability of subcritical fluid model solutions. In 2012, Paganini et al. [Paganini F, Tang A, Ferragut A, Andrew LLH (2012) Network stability under alpha fair bandwidth allocation with general file size distribution. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control 57(3):579–591.] introduced a Lyapunov function for this purpose and gave an argument, assuming that fluid model solutions are sufficiently smooth in timemore »and space that they are strong solutions of a partial differential equation and assuming that no fluid level on any route touches zero before all route levels reach zero. The aim of the current paper is to prove stability of the subcritical fluid model without these strong assumptions. Starting with a slight generalization of the Lyapunov function proposed by Paganini et al., assuming that each component of the initial state of a measure-valued fluid model solution, as well as the file size distributions, have no atoms and have finite first moments, we prove absolute continuity in time of the composition of the Lyapunov function with any subcritical fluid model solution and describe the associated density. We use this to prove that the Lyapunov function composed with such a subcritical fluid model solution converges to zero as time goes to infinity. This implies that each component of the measure-valued fluid model solution converges vaguely on [Formula: see text] to the zero measure as time goes to infinity. Under the further assumption that the file size distributions have finite pth moments for some p > 1 and that each component of the initial state of the fluid model solution has finite pth moment, it is proved that the fluid model solution reaches the measure with all components equal to the zero measure in finite time and that the time to reach this zero state has a uniform bound for all fluid model solutions having a uniform bound on the initial total mass and the pth moment of each component of the initial state. In contrast to the analysis of Paganini et al., we do not need their strong smoothness assumptions on fluid model solutions and we rigorously treat the realistic, but singular situation, where the fluid level on some routes becomes zero, whereas other route levels remain positive.« less
  3. Takayoshi Ogawa ; Keiichi Kato ; Mishio Kawashita (Ed.)
    This report succinctly summarizes results proved in the authors' recent work (2019) where the unique existence of solutions to the Boltzmann equation without angular cut-off and the Landau equation with Coulomb potential are studied in a perturbation framework. A major feature is the use of the Wiener space $A(\Omega)$, which can be expected to play a similar role to $L^\infty$. Compared to the $L^2$-based solution spaces that were employed for prior known results, this function space enables us to establish a new global existence theory. One further feature is that, not only an initial value problem, but also an initial boundary value problem whose boundary conditions can be regarded as physical boundaries in some simple situation, are considered for both equations. In addition to unique existence, large-time behavior of the solutions and propagation of spatial regularity are also proved. In the end of report, key ideas of the proof will be explained in a concise way.
  4. The relative velocities and positions of monodisperse high-inertia particle pairs in isotropic turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulations (DNS), as well as Langevin simulations (LS) based on a probability density function (PDF) kinetic model for pair relative motion. In a prior study (Rani et al. , J. Fluid Mech. , vol. 756, 2014, pp. 870–902), the authors developed a stochastic theory that involved deriving closures in the limit of high Stokes number for the diffusivity tensor in the PDF equation for monodisperse particle pairs. The diffusivity contained the time integral of the Eulerian two-time correlation of fluid relative velocities seen by pairs that are nearly stationary. The two-time correlation was analytically resolved through the approximation that the temporal change in the fluid relative velocities seen by a pair occurs principally due to the advection of smaller eddies past the pair by large-scale eddies. Accordingly, two diffusivity expressions were obtained based on whether the pair centre of mass remained fixed during flow time scales, or moved in response to integral-scale eddies. In the current study, a quantitative analysis of the (Rani et al. 2014) stochastic theory is performed through a comparison of the pair statistics obtained using LS with those from DNS.more »LS consist of evolving the Langevin equations for pair separation and relative velocity, which is statistically equivalent to solving the classical Fokker–Planck form of the pair PDF equation. Langevin simulations of particle-pair dispersion were performed using three closure forms of the diffusivity – i.e. the one containing the time integral of the Eulerian two-time correlation of the seen fluid relative velocities and the two analytical diffusivity expressions. In the first closure form, the two-time correlation was computed using DNS of forced isotropic turbulence laden with stationary particles. The two analytical closure forms have the advantage that they can be evaluated using a model for the turbulence energy spectrum that closely matched the DNS spectrum. The three diffusivities are analysed to quantify the effects of the approximations made in deriving them. Pair relative-motion statistics obtained from the three sets of Langevin simulations are compared with the results from the DNS of (moving) particle-laden forced isotropic turbulence for $St_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D702}}=10,20,40,80$ and $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}}=76,131$ . Here, $St_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D702}}$ is the particle Stokes number based on the Kolmogorov time scale and $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}}$  is the Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number. Statistics such as the radial distribution function (RDF), the variance and kurtosis of particle-pair relative velocities and the particle collision kernel were computed using both Langevin and DNS runs, and compared. The RDFs from the stochastic runs were in good agreement with those from the DNS. Also computed were the PDFs $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}(U|r)$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}(U_{r}|r)$ of relative velocity $U$ and of the radial component of relative velocity $U_{r}$ respectively, both PDFs conditioned on separation $r$ . The first closure form, involving the Eulerian two-time correlation of fluid relative velocities, showed the best agreement with the DNS results for the PDFs.« less
  5. We consider a class of macroscopic models for the spatio-temporal evolution of urban crime, as originally going back to Ref. 29 [M. B. Short, M. R. D’Orsogna, V. B. Pasour, G. E. Tita, P. J. Brantingham, A. L. Bertozzi and L. B. Chayes, A statistical model of criminal behavior, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 18 (2008) 1249–1267]. The focus here is on the question of how far a certain porous medium enhancement in the random diffusion of criminal agents may exert visible relaxation effects. It is shown that sufficient regularity of the non-negative source terms in the system and a sufficiently strong nonlinear enhancement ensure that a corresponding Neumann-type initial–boundary value problem, posed in a smoothly bounded planar convex domain, admits locally bounded solutions for a wide class of arbitrary initial data. Furthermore, this solution is globally bounded under mild additional conditions on the source terms. These results are supplemented by numerical evidence which illustrates smoothing effects in solutions with sharply structured initial data in the presence of such porous medium-type diffusion and support the existence of singular structures in the linear diffusion case, which is the type of diffusion proposed in Ref. 29.