Automatic construction of a taxonomy supports many applications in e-commerce, web search, and question answering. Existing taxonomy expansion or completion methods assume that new concepts have been accurately extracted and their embedding vectors learned from the text corpus. However, one critical and fundamental challenge in fixing the incompleteness of taxonomies is the incompleteness of the extracted concepts, especially for those whose names have multiple words and consequently low frequency in the corpus. To resolve the limitations of extraction-based methods, we propose GenTaxo to enhance taxonomy completion by identifying positions in existing taxonomies that need new concepts and then generating appropriate concept names. Instead of relying on the corpus for concept embeddings, GenTaxo learns the contextual embeddings from their surrounding graph-based and language-based relational information, and leverages the corpus for pre-training a concept name generator. Experimental results demonstrate that GenTaxo improves the completeness of taxonomies over existing methods.
TaxoExpan: Self-supervised Taxonomy Expansion with Position-Enhanced Graph Neural Network
Taxonomies consist of machine-interpretable semantics and provide valuable knowledge for many web applications. For example, online retailers (e.g., Amazon and eBay) use taxonomies for product recommendation, and web search engines (e.g., Google and Bing) leverage taxonomies to enhance query understanding. Enormous efforts have been made on constructing taxonomies eithermanually or semi-automatically. However, with the fast-growing volume of web content, existing taxonomies will become outdated and fail to capture emerging knowledge. Therefore, in many applications, dynamic expansions of an existing taxonomy are in great demand. In this paper, we study how to expand an existing taxonomy by adding a set of new concepts. We propose a novel self-supervised framework, named TaxoExpan, which automatically generates a set of ⟨query concept, anchor concept⟩ pairs from the existing taxonomy as training data. Using such self-supervision data, TaxoExpan learns a model to predict whether a query concept is the direct hyponym of an anchor concept. We develop two innovative techniques in TaxoExpan: (1) a position-enhanced graph neural network that encodes the local structure of an anchor concept in the existing taxonomy, and (2) a noise-robust training objective that enables the learned model to be insensitive to the label noise in the self-supervision data. Extensive experiments on three large-scale datasets from different domains demonstrate both the effectiveness and the efficiency of TaxoExpan for taxonomy expansion.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- WWW '20: The Web Conference 2020
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 486 to 497
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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