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Title: Preventing the colloidal dispersion of Pb( iv ) corrosion scales and lead release in drinking water distribution systems
Lead( iv ) oxide PbO 2 is one dominant solid phase in lead corrosion scales of drinking water distribution systems. Understanding the colloidal dispersion of PbO 2 is important for lead control in drinking water, especially under scenarios of switching the residual disinfectant from chlorine to chloramine. This study investigated the changes in lead release and colloidal dispersion from PbO 2(s) associated with the presence of natural organic matter (NOM), the introduction of chloramine, and the addition of a phosphate corrosion inhibitor in drinking water distribution systems. Experimental data showed that when NOM was present, the surface charges of PbO 2 exhibited a prominent negative shift, leading to colloidal dispersion of Pb( iv ) particles. The presence of chloramine did not significantly change the detrimental effects of NOM on the colloidal behavior of PbO 2 . In contrast, the addition of phosphate greatly reduced colloidal lead release in the size range between 0.1 and 0.45 μm, and limited lead release with colloidal sizes less than 0.1 μm to below 15 μg L −1 , i.e. , the U.S. EPA regulatory standard. The beneficial effects of phosphate addition are mainly attributed to the suppression in colloidal dispersion of Pb( iv ) particles. Meanwhile, the presence of phosphate also limits the reductive dissolution of PbO 2 via the formation of hydroxypyromorphite Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH particles. Results from this study suggest that phosphate limits the dispersion of PbO 2(s) by NOM and prevented the release of Pb( iv ) colloids into drinking water.  more » « less
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1262 to 1269
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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