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Title: Detection of Crack Initiation and Growth Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Embedded into Metal Structures through Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a rapidly growing field focused on detecting damage in complex systems before catastrophic failure occurs. Advanced sensor technologies are necessary to fully harness SHM in applications involving harsh or remote environments, life-critical systems, mass-production vehicles, robotic systems, and others. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are attractive for in-situ health monitoring due to their resistance to electromagnetic noise, ability to be multiplexed, and accurate real-time operation. Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) has been demonstrated for solid-state fabrication of 3D structures with embedded FBG sensors. In this paper, UAM-embedded FBG sensors are investigated with a focus on SHM applications. FBG sensors embedded in an aluminum matrix 3 mm from the initiation site are shown to resolve a minimum crack length of 0.286 ± 0.033 mm and track crack growth until near failure. Accurate crack detection is also demonstrated from FBGs placed 6 mm and 9 mm from the crack initiation site. Regular acrylate-coated FBG sensors are shown to repeatably work at temperatures up to 300 ∘ C once embedded with the UAM process.  more » « less
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National Science Foundation
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