- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
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- Journal Name:
- Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics: Feedstock Powder Preparation by Spray Freeze GranulationObjective of this study is to prepare the binder jetting feedstock powder by spray freeze drying and study the effects of its parameters on the powder properties. Binder jetting additive manufacturing is a promising technology for fabricating ceramic parts with complex or customized geometries. However, this process is limited by the relatively low density of the fabricated parts even after sintering. The main cause comes from the contradicting requirements of the particle size of the feedstock powder: a large particle size (>5 μm) is required for a high flowability while a small particle size (<1 μm) for a high sinterability. For the first time, a novel technology for the feedstock material preparation, called spray freeze drying, is investigated to address this contradiction. Using raw alumina nanopowder (100 nm), a full factorial design at two levels for two factors (spraying pressure and slurry feed rate) was formed to study their effects on the properties (i.e., granule size, flowability, and sinterability) of the obtained granulated powder. Results show that high pressure and small feed rate lead to small granule size. Compared with the raw powder, the flowability of the granulated powders was significantly increased, and the high sinterability was also maintained. Thismore »
Discrete-Element Simulation of Powder Spreading Process in Binder Jetting, and the Effects of Powder SizeBinder Jetting has gained particular interest amongst Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques because of its wide range of applications, broader feasible material systems, and absence of rapid melting-solidification issues present in other AM processes. Understanding and optimizing printing parameters during the powder spreading process is essential to improve the quality of the final part. In this study, a Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation is employed to evaluate the powder packing density, flowability, and porosity during powder spreading process utilizing three different powder groups. Two groups are formed with monoidal size distributions (75–84 μm and 100–109 μm), and the third one consisting of a bimodal distribution (50 μm + 100 μm).
A thorough investigation into the effects of powder size distribution during the powder spreading step in a binder jetting process is conducted using ceramic foundry sand. It was observed that coarser particles result in higher flowability (62% decrease in repose angle) than finer ones due to the cohesion effect present in the latter. A bimodal size distribution yields the highest packing density (8% increase) and lowest porosity (∼12% reduction) in the powder bed, as the finer particles fill in the voids created between the coarser ones. Findings from this study aremore »
Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics: Comparison of Flowability and Sinterability between Raw and Granulated PowdersThe objective of this study is to compare three different feedstock powders for the binder jetting process by characterizing their flowability and sinterability. Binder jetting additive manufacturing is a promising technology for fabricating ceramic parts with complex or customized geometries. Granulation is a promising material preparation method due to the potential high sinterability and flowability of the produced powder. However, no study has been made to systematically compare raw and granulated powders in terms of their flowing and sintering behaviors. This paper aims at filling this knowledge gap. Two raw powders (i.e., fine raw powder of 300 nm and coarse raw powder of 70 μm) and one granulated powder from spray freeze drying were compared. Different flowability metrics, including volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, Hausner ratio, Carr index, and repose angle were measured. Different sinterability metrics, including sintered bulk density, volume shrinkage, and densification ratio were compared for all three powders. Results show that granulated powder achieved comparably high flowability to that of the coarse raw powder and also comparably high sinterability to that of the fine raw powder. Moreover, suitable metrics for the characterization of the sinterability and flowability for these three powders are recommended. This study suggestsmore »
A printability assessment framework for fabricating low variability nickel-niobium parts using laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturingPurpose There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were developed for other traditional manufacturing methods involving considerably different physics. Process optimization to determine processing recipes for newly developed materials is expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of the current work is to use a systematic printability assessment framework developed by the co-authors to determine windows of processing parameters to print defect-free parts from a binary nickel-niobium alloy (NiNb5) using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal AM. Design/methodology/approach The printability assessment framework integrates analytical thermal modeling, uncertainty quantification and experimental characterization to determine processing windows for NiNb5 in an accelerated fashion. Test coupons and mechanical test samples were fabricated on a ProX 200 commercial LPBF system. A series of density, microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted to validate the proposed framework. Findings Near fully-dense parts with more than 99% density were successfully printed using the proposed framework. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of as-printed parts showed low variability, good tensile strength of up to 662 MPa and tensile ductility 51% higher than what has been reported in the literature. Originality/value Although many literature studies investigatemore »
Abstract This technical brief reports an experimental investigation on the effect of feed region density on resultant sintered density and intermediate densities (powder bed density and green density) during the binder jetting additive manufacturing process. The feed region density was increased through compaction. The powder bed density and green density were determined by measuring the mass and dimension. The sintered density was measured with the Archimedes’ method. As the relative feed region density increased from 44% to 65%, the powder bed density increased by 5.7%, green density by 8.5%, and finally sintered density by 4.5%. Statistical testing showed that these effects were significant. This study showed that compacting the powder in the feed region is an effective method to alter the density of parts made via binder jetting additive manufacturing.