- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- SMASIS 2018
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Analytical Modeling and Simulation of the Blocked Force and Large Deformation of Multifunctional Segmented Lithium Ion Battery Unimorph ActuatorA self-powered, and self-actuating lithium ion battery (LIB) has the potential to achieve large deformation while still maintaining actuation force. The energy storage capability allows for continual actuation without an external power source once charged. Reshaping the actuator requires a nonuniform distribution of charge and/or bending stiffness. Spatially varying the state of charge and bending stiffness along the length of a segmented unimorph configuration have the effect of improving the tailorability of the deformed actuator. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to predict the actuation properties of the segmented unimorph beam to determine its usefulness as an actuator.more »
Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Its high theoretical capacity (4000 mAh/g) has the potential to meet the demands of high-energy density applications, such as electric air and ground vehicles. The volume expansion of Si during lithiation is over 300%, indicating its promise as a large strain electrochemical actuator. A Si-anode battery is multifunctional, storing electrical energy and actuating through volume change by lithium-ion insertion.
To utilize the property of large volume expansion, we design, fabricate, and test two types of Si anode cantilevers with bi-directional actuation: (a) bimorph actuator andmore »
Silicon anodes have been demonstrated to provide significant actuation in addition to energy storage in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This work studies the optimization of 1D unimorph and bimorph actuators to achieve a target shape upon actuation. A 1D shape matching with design optimization is used to estimate the varied charge distribution along the length for a LIB actuator and thereby the effect of distance between electrodes in charging.
A genetic algorithm (GA) is used with actuation strain distribution as the design variable. The objective of the optimization is to shape-match by minimizing the shape error between a target shapemore »
The approach is experimentally validated by shape matching a notched unimorph target shape. A shape error of 1.5% is obtained. An optimized unimorph converges to an objective function of less than 0.029% of the length at full state of charge (SOC) for a 5-segment beam.
A second shape matching case study using a bimorph is investigated to showcase the tailorability of LIB actuators. The optimal bimorph achieves an objective function of less than 0.23% of the length for a design variable set of top and bottom actuation strain of an 8-segment beam. The actuated shape nearly matches the target shape by simultaneously activating top and bottom active layers to achieve the same differential actuation strain (the difference between top and bottom active layer actuation strain).
The results show that a bimorph actuator can achieve a given shape while also storing significantly more charge than is necessary to maintain a given complex shape. This demonstrates a strength of energy storage based actuators: excess energy can be stored within the actuator and can be expended without affecting the work done or the shape maintained by the actuator.
Among anode materials for lithium ion batteries, silicon (Si) in known for high theoretical capacity and low cost. Si exhibits over 300% volume change during cycling, potentially providing large displacement. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and testing of a multifunctional NCM-Si battery that not only stores energy, but also utilizes the volume change of Si for actuation. The battery is transparent, thus allowing the visualization of the actuation process during cycling. This paper shows Si anode design that stores energy and actuates through volume change associated with lithium insertion. Experimental results from a transparent battery show thatmore »
Among anode materials for Li-ion batteries, Si is known for high theoretical capacity, low cost, large volume change, relatively fast capacity fade and significant stress-potential coupling. This article shows that a Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2-Si battery can store energy, actuate with Si volume change and sense with stress-potential coupling. Experiments are conducted in an electrolyte-filled chamber with a glass window with Li(Ni0:5Co0:2Mn0:3)O2 cathodes and Si composite anodes. The Si anodes are single-side coated on Cu current collector with Si nanoparticles, polyacrylic acid binder and conductive carbon black in a porous composite structure. During charging, the battery stores energy, Li inserts in the cantileveredmore »