skip to main content

Title: Inverting Deep Generative models, One layer at a time.
We study the problem of inverting a deep generative model with ReLU activations. Inversion corresponds to finding a latent code vector that explains observed measurements as much as possible. In most prior works this is performed by attempting to solve a non-convex optimization problem involving the generator. In this paper we obtain several novel theoretical results for the inversion problem. We show that for the realizable case, single layer inversion can be performed exactly in polynomial time, by solving a linear program. Further, we show that for multiple layers, inversion is NP-hard and the pre-image set can be non-convex. For generative models of arbitrary depth, we show that exact recovery is possible in polynomial time with high probability, if the layers are expanding and the weights are randomly selected. Very recent work analyzed the same problem for gradient descent inversion. Their analysis requires significantly higher expansion (logarithmic in the latent dimension) while our proposed algorithm can provably reconstruct even with constant factor expansion. We also provide provable error bounds for different norms for reconstructing noisy observations. Our empirical validation demonstrates that we obtain better reconstructions when the latent dimension is large.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Advances in neural information processing systems
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We study the problem of high-dimensional robust mean estimation in the presence of a constant fraction of adversarial outliers. A recent line of work has provided sophisticated polynomial-time algorithms for this problem with dimension-independent error guarantees for a range of natural distribution families. In this work, we show that a natural non-convex formulation of the problem can be solved directly by gradient descent. Our approach leverages a novel structural lemma, roughly showing that any approximate stationary point of our non-convex objective gives a near-optimal solution to the underlying robust estimation task. Our work establishes an intriguing connection between algorithmic high-dimensional robust statistics and non-convex optimization, which may have broader applications to other robust estimation tasks.
  2. We study training of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with ReLU activations and introduce exact convex optimization formulations with a polynomial complexity with respect to the number of data samples, the number of neurons, and data dimension. More specifically, we develop a convex analytic framework utilizing semi-infinite duality to obtain equivalent convex optimization problems for several two- and three-layer CNN architectures. We first prove that two-layer CNNs can be globally optimized via an `2 norm regularized convex program. We then show that multi-layer circular CNN training problems with a single ReLU layer are equivalent to an `1 regularized convex program that encourages sparsity in the spectral domain. We also extend these results to three-layer CNNs with two ReLU layers. Furthermore, we present extensions of our approach to different pooling methods, which elucidates the implicit architectural bias as convex regularizers.
  3. This paper studies the fundamental problem of learning deep generative models that consist of multiple layers of latent variables organized in top-down architectures. Such models have high expressivity and allow for learning hierarchical representations. Learning such a generative model requires inferring the latent variables for each training example based on the posterior distribution of these latent variables. The inference typically requires Markov chain Monte Caro (MCMC) that can be time consuming. In this paper, we propose to use noise initialized non-persistent short run MCMC, such as nite step Langevin dynamics initialized from the prior distribution of the latent variables, as an approximate inference engine, where the step size of the Langevin dynamics is variationally optimized by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distribution produced by the short run MCMC and the posterior distribution. Our experiments show that the proposed method outperforms variational auto-encoder (VAE) in terms of reconstruction error and synthesis quality. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is simple and automatic without the need to design an inference model.
  4. We give the first statistical-query lower bounds for agnostically learning any non-polynomial activation with respect to Gaussian marginals (e.g., ReLU, sigmoid, sign). For the specific problem of ReLU regression (equivalently, agnostically learning a ReLU), we show that any statistical-query algorithm with tolerance n−(1/ϵ)b must use at least 2ncϵ queries for some constant b,c>0, where n is the dimension and ϵ is the accuracy parameter. Our results rule out general (as opposed to correlational) SQ learning algorithms, which is unusual for real-valued learning problems. Our techniques involve a gradient boosting procedure for "amplifying" recent lower bounds due to Diakonikolas et al. (COLT 2020) and Goel et al. (ICML 2020) on the SQ dimension of functions computed by two-layer neural networks. The crucial new ingredient is the use of a nonstandard convex functional during the boosting procedure. This also yields a best-possible reduction between two commonly studied models of learning: agnostic learning and probabilistic concepts.
  5. Motivated by practical concerns in applying information design to markets and service systems, we consider a persuasion problem between a sender and a receiver where the receiver may not be an expected utility maximizer. In particular, the receiver’s utility may be non-linear in her belief; we deem such receivers as risk-conscious. Such utility models arise, for example, when the receiver exhibits sensitivity to the variability and the risk in the payoff on choosing an action (e.g., waiting time for a service). In the presence of such non-linearity, the standard approach of using revelation-principle style arguments fails to characterize the set of signals needed in the optimal signaling scheme. Our main contribution is to provide a theoretical framework, using results from convex analysis, to overcome this technical challenge. In particular, in general persuasion settings with risk-conscious agents, we prove that the sender’s problem can be reduced to a convex optimization program. Furthermore, using this characterization, we obtain a bound on the number of signals needed in the optimal signaling scheme. We apply our methods to study a specific setting, namely binary per-suasion, where the receiver has two possible actions (0 and 1), and the sender always prefers the receiver taking actionmore »1. Under a mild convexity assumption on the receiver’s utility and using a geometric approach,we show that the convex program can be further reduced to a linear program. Furthermore, this linear program yields a canonical construction of the set of signals needed in an optimal signaling mechanism. In particular, this canonical set of signals only involves signals that fully reveal the state and signals that induce uncertainty between two states.We illustrate our results in the setting of signaling wait time information in an unobservable queue with customers whose utilities depend on the variance of their waiting times.« less