skip to main content

Title: Characteristics of Metro Fiber Deployments in the US
Optical fiber deployments in metropolitan areas are critical for information distribution to businesses and large segments of the population. In this paper, we describe a char- acterization study of metropolitan area fiber networks in the US. The goal of our work is to elucidate the key aspects of these infrastructures and to assess how they can be enhanced to support growth in cloud-mobile via expanded connectivity to data centers. We collect maps of 204 metro fiber networks and transcribe these into a geographic information system for analysis and visualization. We report on characteristics including raw miles, geography, proximity to users, correspondence to other infrastructure and PoP/data center proximity. These characteris- tics indicate highly diverse deployments in different metro areas and suggest different strategies for future deployments. Next, we conduct a resource allocation analysis to assess how fiber infrastructure can be deployed in metro areas to reduce the physical distance to data centers over a range of cost scenarios. Our results show that a small number of new connections to data centers can significantly reduce physical distances to users.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1703592
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10177233
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In this paper we consider the risks to Internet infrastructure in the US due to sea level rise. Our study is based on sea level incursion projections from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [12] and Internet infrastructure deployment data from Internet Atlas [24]. We align the data formats and assess risks in terms of the amount and type of infrastructure that will be under water in different time intervals over the next 100 years. We find that 4,067 miles of fiber conduit will be under water and 1,101 nodes (e.g., points of presence and colocation centers) will bemore »surrounded by water in the next 15 years. We further quantify the risks of sea level rise by defining a metric that considers the combination of geographic scope and Internet infrastructure density. We use this metric to examine different regions and find that the New York, Miami, and Seattle metropolitan areas are at highest risk. We also quantify the risks to individual service provider infrastructures and find that CenturyLink, Inteliquent, and AT&T are at highest risk. While it is difficult to project the impact of countermeasures such as sea walls, our results suggest the urgency of developing mitigation strategies and alternative infrastructure deployments.« less
  2. The envisioned capabilities of mobile edge computing are predicated on a delivery infrastructure with capacity, ubiquity, robustness, and capabilities to serve a country-wide user base. In this paper, we present an empirical study of key aspects of mobile edge infrastructure toward the goal of understanding their current characteristics and identifying future deployments. We start by analyzing a dataset of over 4M cell tower locations in the US. We evaluate the geographic characteristics of deployments and highlight how locations correspond to population density in major metropolitan areas and in rural areas. We also show how deployments have been arranged along highwaysmore »throughout the US. Our analysis highlight areas where new deployments would be warranted. Finally, we analyze how cell tower deployments correspond to current major data center locations and assess how micro servers might be deployed to improve response times and to better serve customers.« less
  3. In this paper we move away from a static view of neighbourhood inequality and investigate the dynamics of neighbourhood economic status, which ties together spatial income inequality at different moments in time. Using census data from three decades (1980–2010) in 294 metropolitan statistical areas, we use a statistical decomposition method to unpack the aggregate spatiotemporal income dynamic into its contributing components: stability, growth and polarisation, providing a new look at the economic fortunes of diverse neighbourhoods. We examine the relative strength of each component in driving the overall pattern, in addition to whether, how, and why these forces wax andmore »wane across space and over time. Our results show that over the long run, growth is a dominant form of change across all metros, but there is a very clear decline in its prominence over time. Further, we find a growing positive relationship between the components of dispersion and growth, in a reversal of prior trends. Looking across metro areas, we find temporal heterogeneity has been driven by different socioeconomic factors over time (such as sectoral growth in certain decades), and that these relationships vary enormously with geography and time. Together these findings suggest a high level of temporal heterogeneity in neighbourhood income dynamics, a phenomenon which remains largely unexplored in the current literature. There is no universal law governing the changing economic status of neighbourhoods in the US over the last 40 years, and our work demonstrates the importance of considering shifting dynamics over multiple spatial and temporal scales.« less
  4. The widespread adoption and popularity of Internet-scale Distributed Networks (IDNs) has led to an explosive growth in the infrastructure of these networks. Unfortunately, this growth has also led to a rapid increase in energy consumption with its accompanying environmental impact. Therefore, energy efficiency is a key consideration in operating and designing these power-hungry networks. In this paper, we study the greening potential of combining two contrasting sources of renewable energy, namely solar energy and Open Air Cooling (OAC). OAC involves the use of outside air to cool data centers if the weather outside is cold and dry enough. Therefore OACmore »is likely to be abundant in colder weather and at night-time. In contrast, solar energy is correlated with sunny weather and day-time. Given their contrasting natures, we study whether synthesizing these two renewable sources of energy can yield complementary benefits. Given the intermittent nature of renewable energy, we use batteries and load shifting to facilitate the use of green energy and study trade-offs in brown energy reduction based on key parameters like battery size, number of solar panels, and radius of load movement. We do a detailed cost analysis, including amortized cost savings as well as a break-even analysis for different energy prices. Our results look encouraging and we find that we can significantly reduce brown energy consumption by about 55% to 59% just by combining the two technologies. We can increase our savings further to between 60% to 65% by adding load movement within a radius of 5000kms, and to between 73% to 89% by adding batteries.« less
  5. Industrial control systems (ICS) include systems that control industrial processes in critical infrastructure such as electric grids, nuclear power plants, manufacturing plans, water treatment systems, pharmaceutical plants, and building automation systems. ICS represent complex systems that contain an abundance of unique devices all of which may hold different types of software, including applications, firmware and operating systems. Due to their ability to control physical infrastructure, ICS have more and more become targets of cyber-attacks, increasing the risk of serious damage, negative financial impact, disruption to business operations, disruption to communities, and even the loss of life. Ethical hacking represents onemore »way to test the security of ICS. Ethical hacking consists of using a cyber-attacker's perspective and a variety of cybersecurity tools to actively discover vulnerabilities and entry points for potential cyber-attacks. However, ICS ethical hacking represents a difficult task due to the wide variety of devices found on ICS networks. Most ethical hackers do not hold expertise or knowledge about ICS hardware, device computing elements, protocols, vulnerabilities found on these elements, and exploits used to exploit these vulnerabilities. Effective approaches are needed to reduce the complexity of ICS ethical hacking tasks. In this study, we use ontology modeling, a knowledge representation approach in artificial intelligence (AI), to model data that represent ethical hacking tasks of building automation systems. With ontology modeling, information is stored and represented in the form of semantic graphs that express individuals, their properties, and the relations between multiple individuals. Data are drawn from sources such as the National Vulnerability Database, ExploitDB, Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE), the Common Attack Pattern and Enumeration Classification (CAPEC), and others. We show, through semantic queries, how the ontology model can automatically link together entities such as software names and versions of ICS software, vulnerabilities found on those software instances, vulnerabilities found on the protocols used by the software, exploits found on those vulnerabilities, weaknesses that represent those vulnerabilities, and attacks that can exploit those weaknesses. The ontology modeling of ICS ethical hacking and the semantic queries run over the model can reduce the complexity of ICS hacking tasks.« less