A Parallel 2/3-Approximation Algorithm for Vertex-Weighted Matching
We consider the maximum vertex-weighted matching problem (MVM), in which non-negative weights are assigned to the vertices of a graph, and the weight of a matching is the sum of the weights of the matched vertices. Although exact algorithms for MVM are faster than exact algorithms for the maximum edge-weighted matching problem, there are graphs on which these exact algorithms could take hundreds of hours. For a natural number k, we design a k/(k + 1)approximation algorithm for MVM on non-bipartite graphs that updates the matching along certain short paths in the graph: either augmenting paths of length at most 2k + 1 or weight-increasing paths of length at most 2k. The choice of k = 2 leads to a 2/3-approximation algorithm that computes nearly optimal weights fast. This algorithm could be initialized with a 2/3-approximate maximum cardinality matching to reduce its runtime in practice. A 1/2-approximation algorithm may be obtained using k = 1, which is faster than the 2/3-approximation algorithm but it computes lower weights. The 2/3-approximation algorithm has time complexity O(Δ2m) while the time complexity of the 1/2-approximation algorithm is O(Δm), where m is the number of edges and Δ is the maximum degree of a vertex. Results from our serial implementations show that on average the 1/2-approximation algorithm runs faster than the Suitor algorithm (currently the fastest 1/2-approximation algorithm) while the 2/3-approximation algorithm runs as fast as the Suitor algorithm but obtains higher weights for the matching. One advantage of the proposed algorithms is that they are well-suited for parallel implementation since they can process vertices to match in any order. The 1/2- and 2/3-approximation algorithms have been implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, and both approximation algorithms obtain good speedups, while the former algorithm runs faster on average than the parallel Suitor algorithm. Care is needed to design the parallel algorithm to avoid cyclic waits, and we prove that it is live-lock free.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
NSF-PAR ID:
10181551
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
SIAM 2020 Workshop on Combinatorial Scientific Computing
Page Range / eLocation ID:
12-21
Format(s):
Medium: X
3. We describe a paradigm for designing parallel algorithms via approximation, and illustrate it on the b-edgecover problem. A b-edgecover of minimum weight in a graph is a subset $C$ of its edges such that at least a specified number $b(v)$ of edges in $C$ is incident on each vertex $v$, and the sum of the edge weights in $C$ is minimum. The Greedy algorithm and a variant, the LSE algorithm, provide $3/2$-approximation guarantees in the worst-case for this problem, but these algorithms have limited parallelism. Hence we design two new $2$-approximation algorithms with greater concurrency. The MCE algorithm reduces the computation of a b-edgecover to that of finding a b'-matching, by exploiting the relationship between these subgraphs in an approximation context. The LSE-NW is derived from the LSEalgorithm using static edge weights rather than dynamically computing effective edge weights. This relaxation gives LSE a worse approximation guarantee but makes it more amenable to parallelization. We prove that both the MCE and LSE-NW algorithms compute the same b-edgecover with at most twice the weight of the minimum weight edge cover. In practice, the $2$-approximation and $3/2$-approximation algorithms compute edge covers of weight within $10\%$ the optimal. We implement three of the approximation algorithms, MCE, LSE, and LSE-NW on shared memory multi-core machines, including an Intel Xeon and an IBM Power8 machine with 8 TB memory. The MCE algorithm is the fastest of these by an order of magnitude or more. It computes an edge cover in a graph with billions of edges in $20$ seconds using two hundred threads on the IBM Power8. We also show that the parallel depth and work can be bounded for the Suitor and b-Suitor algorithms when edge weights are random.