Directed high-speed motion of nanoscale objects in fluids can have a wide range of applications like molecular machinery, nano robotics, and material assembly. Here, we report ballistic plasmonic Au nanoparticle (NP) swimmers with unprecedented speeds (~336,000 μm s−1) realized by not only optical pushing but also pulling forces from a single Gaussian laser beam. Both the optical pulling and high speeds are made possible by a unique NP-laser interaction. The Au NP excited by the laser at the surface plasmon resonance peak can generate a nanoscale bubble, which can encapsulate the NP (i.e., supercavitation) to create a virtually frictionless environment for it to move, like the Leidenfrost effect. Certain NP-in-bubble configurations can lead to the optical pulling of NP against the photon stream. The demonstrated ultra-fast, light-driven NP movement may benefit a wide range of nano- and bio-applications and provide new insights to the field of optical pulling force.
Long-distance optical pulling of nanoparticle in a low index cavity using a single plane wave
Optical pulling force (OPF) can make a nanoparticle (NP) move against the propagation direction of the incident light. Long-distance optical pulling is highly desired for nano-object manipulation, but its realization remains challenging. We propose an NP-in-cavity structure that can be pulled by a single plane wave to travel long distances when the spherical cavity wrapping the NP has a refractive index lower than the medium. An electromagnetic multipole analysis shows that NPs made of many common materials can receive the OPF inside a lower index cavity. Using a silica-Au core-shell NP that is encapsulated by a plasmonic nanobubble, we experimentally demonstrate that a single laser can pull the Au NP-in-nanobubble structure for ~0.1 mm. These results may lead to practical applications that can use the optical pulling of NP, such as optically driven nanostructure assembly and nanoswimmers.
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Ballistic supercavitating nanoparticles driven by single Gaussian beam optical pushing and pulling forces
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