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Title: Debris-bed friction during glacier sliding with ice–bed separation
Abstract Theory and experiments indicate that ice–bed separation during glacier slip over 2-D hard beds causes basal shear stress to reach a maximum at a particular slip velocity and decrease at higher velocities. We use the sliding theory of Lliboutry (1968) to explore how friction between debris particles in sliding ice and a rock bed affects this relationship between shear stress and slip velocity. Particle–bed contact forces and associated debris friction increase with increasing slip velocity, owing to increased rates of ice convergence with up-glacier facing surfaces. However, debris friction on diminished areas of the bed counteracts this effect as cavities grow. Thus, friction from debris alone increases only slightly with slip velocity, and for sediment particles larger than ~60 mm in diameter, debris friction peaks and decreases with increasing slip velocity. The effect on the sliding relationship is to steepen its rising limb and shift its shear stress peak to a slightly higher velocity. These results, which exclude the effect of debris friction on cavity size and debris concentrations above ~15%, indicate that the effect of debris in ice is to increase basal shear stress but not significantly change the form of the sliding relationship.
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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Annals of Glaciology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
30 to 36
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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