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- Proceedings of the 2020 IISE Annual Conference
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- National Science Foundation
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Minimally invasive endovascular therapy (MIET) is an innovative technique that utilizes percutaneous access and transcatheter implantation of medical devices to treat vascular diseases. However, conventional devices often face limitations such as incomplete or suboptimal treatment, leading to issues like recanalization in brain aneurysms, endoleaks in aortic aneurysms, and paravalvular leaks in cardiac valves. In this study, we introduce a new metastructure design for MIET employing re-entrant honeycomb structures with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR), which are initially designed through topology optimization and subsequently mapped onto a cylindrical surface. Using ferromagnetic soft materials, we developed structures with adjustable mechanical properties called magnetically activated structures (MAS). These magnetically activated structures can change shape under noninvasive magnetic fields, letting them fit against blood vessel walls to fix leaks or movement issues. The soft ferromagnetic materials allow the stent design to be remotely controlled, changed, and rearranged using external magnetic fields. This offers accurate control over stent placement and positioning inside blood vessels. We performed magneto-mechanical simulations to evaluate the proposed design's performance. Experimental tests were conducted on prototype beams to assess their bending and torsional responses to external magnetic fields. The simulation results were compared with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the magneto-mechanical simulation model for ferromagnetic soft materials. After validating the model, it was used to analyze the deformation behavior of the plane matrix and cylindrical structure designs of the Negative Poisson's Ratio (NPR) metamaterial. The results indicate that the plane matrix NPR metamaterial design exhibits concurrent vertical and horizontal expansion when subjected to an external magnetic field. In contrast, the cylindrical structure demonstrates simultaneous axial and radial expansion under the same conditions. The preliminary findings demonstrate the considerable potential and practicality of the proposed methodology in the development of magnetically activated MIET devices, which offer biocompatibility, a diminished risk of adverse reactions, and enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Integrating ferromagnetic soft materials into mechanical metastructures unlocks promising opportunities for designing stents with adjustable mechanical properties, propelling the field towards more sophisticated minimally invasive vascular interventions.more » « less
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The main purpose of this work was to generate and validate the dosimetric accuracy of proton beams of dimensions that are appropriate for in vivo small animal and in vitro ultrahigh dose rate (FLASH) radiotherapy experiments using a synchrotron‐based treatment delivery system. This study was performed to enable future investigations of the relevance of a spread‐out Bragg peak (SOBP) under FLASH conditions.
The spill characteristics of the small field fixed horizontal beam line were modified to deliver accelerated protons in times as short as 2 ms and to control the dose delivered. A Gaussian‐like transverse beam profile was transformed into a square uniform one at FLASH dose rates, while avoiding low‐dose regions, a crucial requirement to protect normal tissue during FLASH irradiation. Novel beam‐shaping devices were designed using Monte Carlo techniques to produce up to about 6 cm3of uniform dose in SOBPs while maximizing the dose rate. These included a scattering foil, a conical flattening filter to maximize the flux of protons into the region of interest, energy filters, range compensators, and collimators. The shapes, sizes, and positions of the components were varied to provide the required field sizes and SOBPs.
The designed and fabricated devices were used to produce 10‐, 15‐, and 20‐mm diameter, circular field sizes and 10‐, 15‐, and 20‐mm SOBP modulation widths at uniform physical dose rates of up to 375 Gy/s at the center of the SOBP and a minimum dose rate of about 255 Gy/s at the entrance, respectively, in cylindrical volumes. The flatness of lateral dose profiles at the center could be adjusted to within ±1.5% at the center of the SOBP. Assessment of systematic uncertainties, such as impact of misalignments and positioning uncertainties, was performed using simulations, and the results were used to provide appropriate adjustments to ensure high‐accuracy FLASH beam delivery for both in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments.
It is feasible to use synchrotron‐generated proton beams of sufficient dimensions for FLASH radiobiology experiments. We expect to use the system we developed to acquire in vitro and in vivo small animal FLASH radiobiology data as a function of dose, dose rate, oxygen content, and linear energy transfer to help us understand the underlying mechanisms of the FLASH phenomenon.