skip to main content

Title: Understanding Container Network Interface Plugins: Design Considerations and Performance
Kubernetes, an open-source container orchestration platform, has been widely adopted by cloud service providers (CSPs) for its advantages in simplifying container deployment, scalability and scheduling. Networking is one of the central components of Kubernetes, providing connectivity between different pods (group of containers) both within the same host and across hosts. To bootstrap Kubernetes networking, the Container Network Interface (CNI) provides a unified interface for the interaction between container runtimes. There are several CNI implementations, available as open-source ‘CNI plugins’. While they differ in functionality and performance, it is a challenge for a cloud provider to differentiate and choose the appropriate plugin for their environment. In this paper, we compare the various open source CNI plugins available from the community, qualitatively and through detailed quantitative measurements. With our experimental evaluation, we analyze the overheads and bottlenecks for each CNI plugin, as a result of the network model it implements, interaction with the host network protocol stack and the network policies implemented in iptables rules. The choice of the CNI plugin may also be based on whether intra-host or inter-host communication dominates.
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1763929
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10197639
Journal Name:
26th {IEEE} International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, {LANMAN} 2020, Orlando, FL, USA, July 13-15, 2020
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 6
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Edge and fog computing encompass a variety of technologies that are poised to enable new applications across the Internet that support data capture, storage, processing, and communication across the networking continuum. These environments pose new challenges to the design and implementation of networks-as membership can be dynamic and devices are heterogeneous, widely distributed geographically, and in proximity to end-users, as is the case with mobile and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. We present a demonstration of EdgeVPN.io (Evio for short), an open-source programmable, software-defined network that addresses challenges in the deployment of virtual networks spanning distributed edge and cloud resources, in particular highlighting its use in support of the Kubernetes container orchestration middleware. The demo highlights a deployment of unmodified Kubernetes middleware across a virtual cluster comprising virtual machines deployed both in cloud providers, and in distinct networks at the edge-where all nodes are assigned private IP addresses and subject to different NAT (Network Address Translation) middleboxes, connected through an Evio virtual network. The demo includes an overview of the configuration of Kubernetes and Evio nodes and the deployment of Docker-based container pods, highlighting the seamless connectivity for TCP/IP applications deployed on the pods.
  2. ABSTRACT The central aims of many host or environmental microbiome studies are to elucidate factors associated with microbial community compositions and to relate microbial features to outcomes. However, these aims are often complicated by difficulties stemming from high-dimensionality, non-normality, sparsity, and the compositional nature of microbiome data sets. A key tool in microbiome analysis is beta diversity, defined by the distances between microbial samples. Many different distance metrics have been proposed, all with varying discriminatory power on data with differing characteristics. Here, we propose a compositional beta diversity metric rooted in a centered log-ratio transformation and matrix completion called robust Aitchison PCA. We demonstrate the benefits of compositional transformations upstream of beta diversity calculations through simulations. Additionally, we demonstrate improved effect size, classification accuracy, and robustness to sequencing depth over the current methods on several decreased sample subsets of real microbiome data sets. Finally, we highlight the ability of this new beta diversity metric to retain the feature loadings linked to sample ordinations revealing salient intercommunity niche feature importance. IMPORTANCE By accounting for the sparse compositional nature of microbiome data sets, robust Aitchison PCA can yield high discriminatory power and salient feature ranking between microbial niches. The software to performmore »this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/biocore/DEICODE ; additionally, a QIIME 2 plugin is provided to perform this analysis at https://library.qiime2.org/plugins/q2-deicode .« less
  3. With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, industry practitioners are moving towards container-based infrastructure for managing their digital workloads. Kubernetes, a container orchestration tool, is reported to help industry practitioners in automated management of cloud infrastructure and rapid deployment of software services. Despite reported benefits, Kubernetes installations are susceptible to security defects, as it occurred for Tesla in 2018. Understanding how frequently security defects appear in Kubernetes installations can help cybersecurity researchers to investigate security-related vulnerabilities for Kubernetes and generate security best practices to avoid them. In this position paper, we first quantify how frequently security defects appear in Kubernetes manifests, i.e., configuration files that are use to install and manage Kubernetes. Next, we lay out a list of future research directions that researchers can pursue.We apply qualitative analysis on 5,193 commits collected from 38 open source repositories and observe that 0.79% of the 5,193 commits are security-related. Based on our findings, we posit that security-related defects are under-reported and advocate for rigorous research that can systematically identify undiscovered security defects that exist in Kubernetes manifests. We predict that the increasing use of Kubernetes with unresolved security defects can lead to large-scale security breaches.
  4. The first major goal of this project is to build a state-of-the-art information storage, retrieval, and analysis system that utilizes the latest technology and industry methods. This system is leveraged to accomplish another major goal, supporting modern search and browse capabilities for a large collection of tweets from the Twitter social media platform, web pages, and electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). The backbone of the information system is a Docker container cluster running with Rancher and Kubernetes. Information retrieval and visualization is accomplished with containers in a pipelined fashion, whether in the cluster or on virtual machines, for Elasticsearch and Kibana, respectively. In addition to traditional searching and browsing, the system supports full-text and metadata searching. Search results include facets as a modern means of browsing among related documents. The system supports text analysis and machine learning to reveal new properties of collection data. These new properties assist in the generation of available facets. Recommendations are also presented with search results based on associations among documents and with logged user activity. The information system is co-designed by five teams of Virginia Tech graduate students, all members of the same computer science class, CS 5604. Although the project is an academicmore »exercise, it is the practice of the teams to work and interact as though they are groups within a company developing a product. The teams on this project include three collection management groups -- Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD), Tweets (TWT), and Web-Pages (WP) -- as well as the Front-end (FE) group and the Integration (INT) group to help provide the overarching structure for the application. This submission focuses on the work of the Integration (INT) team, which creates and administers Docker containers for each team in addition to administering the cluster infrastructure. Each container is a customized application environment that is specific to the needs of the corresponding team. Each team will have several of these containers set up in a pipeline formation to allow scaling and extension of the current system. The INT team also contributes to a cross-team effort for exploring the use of Elasticsearch and its internally associated database. The INT team administers the integration of the Ceph data storage system into the CS Department Cloud and provides support for interactions between containers and the Ceph filesystem. During formative stages of development, the INT team also has a role in guiding team evaluations of prospective container components and workflows. The INT team is responsible for the overall project architecture and facilitating the tools and tutorials that assist the other teams in deploying containers in a development environment according to mutual specifications agreed upon with each team. The INT team maintains the status of the Kubernetes cluster, deploying new containers and pods as needed by the collection management teams as they expand their workflows. This team is responsible for utilizing a continuous integration process to update existing containers. During the development stage the INT team collaborates specifically with the collection management teams to create the pipeline for the ingestion and processing of new collection documents, crossing services between those teams as needed. The INT team develops a reasoner engine to construct workflows with information goal as input, which are then programmatically authored, scheduled, and monitored using Apache Airflow. The INT team is responsible for the flow, management, and logging of system performance data and making any adjustments necessary based on the analysis of testing results. The INT team has established a Gitlab repository for archival code related to the entire project and has provided the other groups with the documentation to deposit their code in the repository. This repository will be expanded using Gitlab CI in order to provide continuous integration and testing once it is available. Finally, the INT team will provide a production distribution that includes all embedded Docker containers and sub-embedded Git source code repositories. The INT team will archive this distribution on the Virginia Tech Docker Container Registry and deploy it on the Virginia Tech CS Cloud. The INT-2020 team owes a sincere debt of gratitude to the work of the INT-2019 team. This is a very large undertaking and the wrangling of all of the products and processes would not have been possible without their guidance in both direct and written form. We have relied heavily on the foundation they and their predecessors have provided for us. We continue their work with systematic improvements, but also want to acknowledge their efforts Ibid. Without them, our progress to date would not have been possible.« less
  5. The HPC community is actively researching and evaluating tools to support execution of scientific applications in cloud-based environ- ments. Among the various technologies, containers have recently gained importance as they have significantly better performance compared to full-scale virtualization, support for microservices and DevOps, and work seamlessly with workflow and orchestration tools. Docker is currently the leader in containerization technology because it offers low overhead, flexibility, portability of applications, and reproducibility. Singularity is another container solution that is of interest as it is designed specifically for scientific applications. It is important to conduct performance and feature analysis of the container technologies to understand their applicability for each application and target execution environment. This paper presents a (1) performance evaluation of Docker and Singularity on bare metal nodes in the Chameleon cloud (2) mecha- nism by which Docker containers can be mapped with InfiniBand hardware with RDMA communication and (3) analysis of mapping elements of parallel workloads to the containers for optimal re- source management with container-ready orchestration tools. Our experiments are targeted toward application developers so that they can make informed decisions on choosing the container tech- nologies and approaches that are suitable for their HPC workloads on cloud infrastructure. Ourmore »performance analysis shows that sci- entific workloads for both Docker and Singularity based containers can achieve near-native performance. Singularity is designed specifically for HPC workloads. However, Docker still has advantages over Singularity for use in clouds as it provides overlay networking and an intuitive way to run MPI applications with one container per rank for fine-grained resources allocation. Both Docker and Singularity make it possible to directly use the underlying network fabric from the containers for coarse- grained resource allocation.« less