skip to main content


Title: Dimerization of indenocorannulene radicals: imposing stability through increasing strain and curvature
One-electron reduction of bowl-shaped indenocorannulene, C 26 H 12 , with Rb metal in THF affords [{Rb + (18-crown-6)} 2 (C 26 H 12 –C 26 H 12 ) 2− ]·4THF, as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The product consists of a dimeric σ-bonded dianion (C–C, 1.568(7) Å) having two endo -η 6 coordinated {Rb + (18-crown-6)} moieties (Rb–C, 3.272(4)–3.561(4) Å). The (C 26 H 12 –C 26 H 12 ) 2− dimer represents the first crystallographically confirmed example of spontaneous coupling for indenocorannulene monoanion radicals, C 26 H 12 ˙ − . Comprehensive theoretical investigation of the new dimer confirms the single σ-bond character of the linker and reveals a significant increase of both thermodynamic and kinetic stability of [σ-(C 26 H 12 ) 2 ] 2− in comparison with analogues formed by such π-bowls as corannulene and its dibenzo-derivative. The in-depth computational analysis and direct comparison of the series demonstrates the effect of curvature on radical coupling processes, allowing control over stability and reactivity of bowl-shaped π-radicals.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2003411 1608628 1726724
NSF-PAR ID:
10199466
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Organic Chemistry Frontiers
ISSN:
2052-4129
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Designed site‐directed dimerization of the monoanion radicals of a π‐bowl in the solid state is reported. Dibenzo[a,g]corannulene (C28H14) was selected based on the asymmetry of the charge/spin localization in the C28H14.−anion. Controlled one‐electron reduction of C28H14with Cs metal in diglyme resulted in crystallization of a new dimer, [{Cs+(diglyme)}2(C28H14−C28H14)2−] (1), as revealed by single crystal X‐ray diffraction study performed in a broad range of temperatures. The C−C bond length between two C28H14.−bowls (1.560(8) Å) measured at −143 °C does not significantly change upon heating of the crystal to +67 °C. The single σ‐bond character of the C−C linker is confirmed by calculations. The trans‐disposition of two bowls in1is observed with the torsion angles around the central C−C bond of 172.3(5)° and 173.5(5)°. A systematic theoretical evaluation of dimerization pathways of C28H14.−radicals confirmed that the trans‐isomer found in1is energetically favored.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Designed site‐directed dimerization of the monoanion radicals of a π‐bowl in the solid state is reported. Dibenzo[a,g]corannulene (C28H14) was selected based on the asymmetry of the charge/spin localization in the C28H14.−anion. Controlled one‐electron reduction of C28H14with Cs metal in diglyme resulted in crystallization of a new dimer, [{Cs+(diglyme)}2(C28H14−C28H14)2−] (1), as revealed by single crystal X‐ray diffraction study performed in a broad range of temperatures. The C−C bond length between two C28H14.−bowls (1.560(8) Å) measured at −143 °C does not significantly change upon heating of the crystal to +67 °C. The single σ‐bond character of the C−C linker is confirmed by calculations. The trans‐disposition of two bowls in1is observed with the torsion angles around the central C−C bond of 172.3(5)° and 173.5(5)°. A systematic theoretical evaluation of dimerization pathways of C28H14.−radicals confirmed that the trans‐isomer found in1is energetically favored.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The chemical reduction of π‐conjugated bilayer nanographene1(C138H120) with K and Rb in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 affords [K+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2][{K+(18‐crown‐6)}2(THF)0.5][C138H1223−] (2) and [Rb+(18‐crown‐6)2][{Rb+(18‐crown‐6)}2(C138H1223−)] (3). Whereas K+cations are fully solvent‐separated from the trianionic core thus affording a “naked”1.3anion, Rb+cations are coordinated to the negatively charged layers of1.3. According to DFT calculations, the localization of the first two electrons in the helicene moiety leads to an unprecedented site‐specific hydrogenation process at the carbon atoms located on the edge of the helicene backbone. This uncommon reduction‐induced site‐specific hydrogenation provokes dramatic changes in the (electronic) structure of1as the helicene backbone becomes more compressed and twisted upon chemical reduction, which results in a clear slippage of the bilayers.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The chemical reduction of π‐conjugated bilayer nanographene1(C138H120) with K and Rb in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 affords [K+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2][{K+(18‐crown‐6)}2(THF)0.5][C138H1223−] (2) and [Rb+(18‐crown‐6)2][{Rb+(18‐crown‐6)}2(C138H1223−)] (3). Whereas K+cations are fully solvent‐separated from the trianionic core thus affording a “naked”1.3anion, Rb+cations are coordinated to the negatively charged layers of1.3. According to DFT calculations, the localization of the first two electrons in the helicene moiety leads to an unprecedented site‐specific hydrogenation process at the carbon atoms located on the edge of the helicene backbone. This uncommon reduction‐induced site‐specific hydrogenation provokes dramatic changes in the (electronic) structure of1as the helicene backbone becomes more compressed and twisted upon chemical reduction, which results in a clear slippage of the bilayers.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Exploration of the reduction chemistry of the 2,2’‐bipyridine (bipy) lanthanide metallocene complexes Cp*2LnCl(bipy) and Cp*2Ln(bipy) (Cp* = C5Me5) resulted in the isolation of a series of complexes with unusual composition and structure including complexes with a single Cp* ligand, multiple azide ligands, and bipy ligands with close parallel orientations. These results not only reveal new structural types, but they also show the diverse chemistry displayed by this redox‐active platform. Treatment of Cp*2NdCl(bipy) with excess KC8resulted in the formation of the mono‐Cp* Nd(III) complex, [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Nd(bipy)2],1, as well as [K(crypt)][Cp*2NdCl2],2, and the previously reported [K(crypt)][Cp*2Nd(bipy)]. A mono‐Cp* Lu(III) complex, Cp*Lu(bipy)2,3, was also found in an attempt to make Cp*2Lu(bipy) from LuCl3, 2 equiv. of KCp*, bipy, and K/KI. Surprisingly, the (bipy)1−ligands in neighboring molecules in the structure of3are oriented in a parallel fashion with intermolecular C⋅⋅⋅C distances of 3.289(4) Å, which are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii of two carbon atoms, 3.4 Å. Another product with one Cp* ligand per lanthanide was isolated from the reaction of [K(crypt)][Cp*2Eu(bipy)] with azobenzene, which afforded the dimeric Eu(II) complex, [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Eu(THF)(PhNNPh)]2,4. Attempts to make4from the reaction between Cp*2Eu(THF)2and a reduced azobenzene anion generated instead the mixed‐valent Eu(III)/Eu(II) complex, [K(crypt)][Cp*Eu(THF)(PhNNPh)]2,5, which allows direct comparison with the bimetallic Eu(II) complex4. Mono‐Cp* complexes of Yb(III) are obtained from reactions of the Yb(II) complex, [K(crypt)][Cp*2Yb(bipy)], with trimethylsilylazide, which afforded the tetra‐azido [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(N3)4],6, or the di‐azido complex [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(N3)2(bipy)],7 a, depending on the reaction stoichiometry. A mono‐Cp* Yb(III) complex is also isolated from reaction of [K(crypt)][Cp*2Yb(bipy)] with elemental sulfur which forms the mixed polysulfido Yb(III) complex [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(S4)(S5)],8 a. In contrast to these reactions that form mono‐Cp* products, reduction of Cp*2Yb(bipy) with 1 equiv. of KC8in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 resulted in the complete loss of Cp* ligands and the formation of [K(18‐c‐6)(THF)][Yb(bipy)4],9. The (bipy)1−ligands of9are arranged in a parallel orientation, as observed in the structure of3, except in this case this interaction is intramolecular and involves pairs of ligands bound to the same Yb atom. Attempts to reduce further the Sm(II) (bipy)1−complex, Cp*2Sm(bipy) with 2 equiv. of KC8in the presence of excess 18‐crown‐6 led to the isolation of a Sm(III) salt of (bipy)2−with an inverse sandwich Cp* counter‐cation and a co‐crystallized K(18‐c‐6)Cp* unit, [K2(18‐c‐6)2Cp*]2[Cp*2Sm(bipy)]2 ⋅ [K(18‐c‐6)Cp*],10.

     
    more » « less