This paper addresses one of the key issues in the scientific community of Si photonics: thin-film quality and the light emission properties of band-engineered n+Germanium-on-Silicon (Ge-on-Si). Compared to the traditional delta doping approach, which was utilized in the first electrically-pumped Ge-on-Si lasers, we offer an n+Ge-on-Si thin film with better material quality and higher carrier injection efficiency grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The impacts of thermal cycle annealing and Si substrate offcut on the thin film quality were investigated, including surface roughness, strain, threading dislocation density, Si-Ge interdiffusion, and dopant diffusion. It was revealed that: 1) MOCVD overcomes the outdiffision issue of n-type dopants by having the dopant peaks at the bottom of the Ge films; 2) the characterization of the light emission properties of these MOCVD n+Ge-on-Si samples (1.0 × 1019cm−3doped) compared to delta-doped ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) Ge, showing comparable photoluminescence (PL) spectral intensity at 1/4 of the doping level; 3) Detailed PL spectral analyses showed that population inversion from the direct gap transition has been achieved, and the injected electron density in the direct Γ valley is comparable to that of the delta-doped sample even though the n-type doping level is 75% less; and 4)more »
The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks into advanced devices remains a desirable goal, but progress is hindered by difficulties in preparing large crystalline metal-organic framework films with suitable electronic performance. We demonstrate the direct growth of large-area, high quality, and phase pure single metal-organic framework crystals through chemical vapor deposition of a dimolybdenum paddlewheel precursor, Mo2(INA)4. These exceptionally uniform, high quality crystals cover areas up to 8600 µm2and can be grown down to thicknesses of 30 nm. Moreover, scanning tunneling microscopy indicates that the Mo2(INA)4clusters assemble into a two-dimensional, single-layer framework. Devices are readily fabricated from single vapor-phase grown crystals and exhibit reversible 8-fold changes in conductivity upon illumination at modest powers. Moreover, we identify vapor-induced single crystal transitions that are reversible and responsible for 30-fold changes in conductivity of the metal-organic framework as monitored by in situ device measurements. Gas-phase methods, including chemical vapor deposition, show broader promise for the preparation of high-quality molecular frameworks, and may enable their integration into devices, including detectors and actuators.
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- Nature Communications
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- National Science Foundation
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Improved thin film quality and photoluminescence of N-doped epitaxial germanium-on-silicon using MOCVD
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