3GPP air interface standards support meter-level position location of a user in a cellular network. With wider bandwidths and narrow antenna beamwidths available at mmWave frequencies, cellular networks now have the potential to provide sub-meter position location for each user. In this work, we provide an overview of 3GPP position location techniques that are designed for line-of-sight propagation. We discuss additional measurements required in the 3GPP standard that enable multipath-based non-line-of-sight position location. Further, we validate the concepts in this paper by using field data to test a map-based position location algorithm in an indoor office environment which has dimensions of 35 m by 65.5 m. We demonstrate how the fusion of angle of arrival and time of flight information in concert with a 3-D map of the office provides a mean accuracy of 5.72 cm at 28 GHz and 6.29 cm at 140 GHz, over 23 receiver distances ranging from 4.2 m to 32.3 m, using a single base station in line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight. We also conduct a theoretical analysis of the typical error experienced in the map-based position location algorithm and show that the complexity of the map-based algorithm is low enough to allow real-time implementation.
Map-Assisted Millimeter Wave Localization for Accurate Position Location
Accurate precise positioning at millimeter wave frequencies is possible due to the large available bandwidth that permits precise on-the-fly time of flight measurements using conventional air interface standards. In addition, narrow antenna beamwidths may be used to determine the angles of arrival and departure of the multipath components between the base station and mobile users. By combining accurate temporal and angular information of multipath components with a 3- D map of the environment (that may be built by each user or downloaded a-priori), robust localization is possible, even in non-line-of-sight environments. In this work, we develop an accurate 3-D ray tracer for an indoor office environment and demonstrate how the fusion of angle of departure and time of flight information in concert with a 3-D map of a typical large office environment provides a mean accuracy of 12.6 cm in line-of-sight and 16.3 cm in non-line-of-sight, over 100 receiver distances ranging from 1.5 m to 24.5 m using a single base station. We show how increasing the number of base stations improves the average non-line-of-sight position location accuracy to 5.5 cm at 21 locations with a maximum propagation distance of 24.5 m. Index Terms—localization; positioning; position location; navigation; mmWave; 5G; ray tracing; site-specific propagation; map-based
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 6
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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