skip to main content

Title: Enhanced carrier transport by transition metal doping in WS 2 field effect transistors
High contact resistance is one of the primary concerns for electronic device applications of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors. Here, we explore the enhanced carrier transport through metal–semiconductor interfaces in WS 2 field effect transistors (FETs) by introducing a typical transition metal, Cu, with two different doping strategies: (i) a “generalized” Cu doping by using randomly distributed Cu atoms along the channel and (ii) a “localized” Cu doping by adapting an ultrathin Cu layer at the metal–semiconductor interface. Compared to the pristine WS 2 FETs, both the generalized Cu atomic dopant and localized Cu contact decoration can provide a Schottky-to-Ohmic contact transition owing to the reduced contact resistances by 1–3 orders of magnitude, and consequently elevate electron mobilities by 5–7 times. Our work demonstrates that the introduction of transition metal can be an efficient and reliable technique to enhance the carrier transport and device performance in 2D TMD FETs.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
17253 to 17264
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. To support the ever-growing demand for faster, energy-efficient computation, more aggressive scaling of the transistor is required. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), with their ultra-thin body, excellent electrostatic gate control, and absence of surface dangling bonds, allow for extreme scaling of the channel region without compromising the mobility. New device geometries, such as stacked nanosheets with multiple parallel channels for carrier flow, can facilitate higher drive currents to enable ultra-fast switches, and TMDs are an ideal candidate for that type of next generation front-end-of-line field effect transistor (FET). TMDs are also promising for monolithic 3D (M3D) integrated back-end-of-line FETs due to their ability to be grown at low temperature and with less regard to lattice matching through van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy. To achieve TMD FETs with superior performance, two important challenges must be addressed: (1) complementary n- and p-type FETs with small and reliable threshold voltages are required for the reduction of dynamic and static power consumption per logic operation, and (2) contact resistance must be reduced significantly. We present here the underlying strengths and weaknesses of the wide variety of methods under investigation to provide scalable, stable, and controllable doping. It is our Perspective that of all the available doping methods, substitutional doping offers the ultimate solution for TMD-based transistors.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Here we benchmark device-to-device variation in field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer MoS2and WS2films grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process. Our study involves 230 MoS2FETs and 160 WS2FETs with channel lengths ranging from 5 μm down to 100 nm. We use statistical measures to evaluate key FET performance indicators for benchmarking these two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers against existing literature as well as ultra-thin body Si FETs. Our results show consistent performance of 2D FETs across 1 × 1 cm2chips owing to high quality and uniform growth of these TMDs followed by clean transfer onto device substrates. We are able to demonstrate record high carrier mobility of 33 cm2 V−1 s−1in WS2FETs, which is a 1.5X improvement compared to the best reported in the literature. Our experimental demonstrations confirm the technological viability of 2D FETs in future integrated circuits.

    more » « less
  3. Surface states that induce depletion regions are commonly believed to control the transport of charged carriers through semiconductor nanowires. However, direct, localized optical, and electrical measurements of ZnO nanowires show that native point defects inside the nanowire bulk and created at metal−semiconductor interfaces are electrically active and play a dominant role electronically, altering the semiconductor doping, the carrier density along the wire length, and the injection of charge into the wire. We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy to measure the densities of multiple point defects inside ZnO nanowires, substitutional Cu on Zn sites, zinc vacancy, and oxygen vacancy defects, showing that their densities varied strongly both radially and lengthwise for tapered wires. These defect profiles and their variation with wire diameter produce trap-assisted tunneling and acceptor trapping of free carriers, the balance of which determines the low contact resistivity (2.6 × 10−3 Ω·cm−2) ohmic, Schottky (Φ ≥ 0.35 eV) or blocking nature of Pt contacts to a single nano/microwire. We show how these defects can now be manipulated by ion beam methods and nanowire design, opening new avenues to control nanowire charge injection and transport. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    This paper provides comprehensive experimental analysis relating to improvements in the two-dimensional (2D) p-type metal–oxide–semiconductor (PMOS) field effect transistors (FETs) by pure van der Waals (vdW) contacts on few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) with high-k metal gate (HKMG) stacks. Our analysis shows that standard metallization techniques (e.g., e-beam evaporation at moderate pressure ~ 10–5 torr) results in significant Fermi-level pinning, but Schottky barrier heights (SBH) remain small (< 100 meV) when using high work function metals (e.g., Pt or Pd). Temperature-dependent analysis uncovers a more dominant contribution to contact resistance from the channel access region and confirms significant improvement through less damaging metallization techniques (i.e., reduced scattering) combined with strongly scaled HKMG stacks (enhanced carrier density). A clean contact/channel interface is achieved through high-vacuum evaporation and temperature-controlled stepped deposition providing large improvements in contact resistance. Our study reports low contact resistance of 5.7 kΩ-µm, with on-state currents of ~ 97 µA/µm and subthreshold swing of ~ 140 mV/dec in FETs with channel lengths of 400 nm. Furthermore, theoretical analysis using a Landauer transport ballistic model for WSe2SB-FETs elucidates the prospects of nanoscale 2D PMOS FETs indicating high-performance (excellent on-state current vs subthreshold swing benchmarks) towards the ultimate CMOS scaling limit.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Carrier doping is the basis of the modern semiconductor industry. Great efforts are put into the control of carrier doping for 2D semiconductors, especially the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the direct laser patterning of WSe2devices via light‐induced hole doping is systematically studied. By changing the laser power, scan speed, and the number of irradiation times, different levels of hole doping can be achieved in the pristine electron‐transport‐dominated WSe2, without obvious sample thinning. Scanning transmission electron microscopy characterization reveals that the oxidation of the laser‐radiated WSe2is the origin of the carrier doping. Photocurrent mapping shows that after the same amount of laser irradiation, with increasing thickness, the laser patterned PN junction changes from the pure lateral to the vertical‐lateral hybrid structure, accompanied by the decrease in the open circuit voltage. The vertical‐lateral hybrid PN junction can be tuned to a pure lateral one by further irradiation, showing possibilities to construct complex junction profiles. Moreover, a NOR gate circuit is demonstrated by direct patterning of p‐doped channels using laser irradiation without introducing passive layers and metal electrodes with different work functions. This method simplifies device fabrication procedures and shows a promising future in large scale logic circuit applications.

    more » « less