Fault-tolerant cluster states form the basis for scalable measurement-based quantum computation. Recently, new stabilizer codes for scalable circuit-based quantum computation have been introduced that have very high thresholds under biased noise where the qubit predominantly suffers from one type of error, e.g. dephasing. However, extending these advances in stabilizer codes to generate high-threshold cluster states for biased noise has been a challenge, as the standard method for foliating stabilizer codes to generate fault-tolerant cluster states does not preserve the noise bias. In this work, we overcome this barrier by introducing a generalization of the cluster state that allows us to foliate stabilizer codes in a bias-preserving way. As an example of our approach, we construct a foliated version of the XZZX code which we call the XZZX cluster state. We demonstrate that under a circuit-level-noise model, our XZZX cluster state has a threshold more than double the usual cluster state when dephasing errors are more likely than errors that cause bit flips by a factor of order ~100 or more.
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Entanglement is the key resource for measurement-based quantum computing. It is stored in quantum states known as cluster states, which are prepared offline and enable quantum computing by means of purely local measurements. Universal quantum computing requires cluster states that are both large and possess (at least) a two-dimensional topology. Continuous-variable cluster states—based on bosonic modes rather than qubits—have previously been generated on a scale exceeding one million modes, but only in one dimension. Here, we report generation of a large-scale two-dimensional continuous-variable cluster state. Its structure consists of a 5- by 1240-site square lattice that was tailored to our highly scalable time-multiplexed experimental platform. It is compatible with Bosonic error-correcting codes that, with higher squeezing, enable fault-tolerant quantum computation.more » « less
null (Ed.)Current, near-term quantum devices have shown great progress in the last several years culminating recently with a demonstration of quantum supremacy. In the medium-term, however, quantum machines will need to transition to greater reliability through error correction, likely through promising techniques like surface codes which are well suited for near-term devices with limited qubit connectivity. We discover quantum memory, particularly resonant cavities with transmon qubits arranged in a 2.5D architecture, can efficiently implement surface codes with substantial hardware savings and performance/fidelity gains. Specifically, we virtualize logical qubits by storing them in layers of qubit memories connected to each transmon. Surprisingly, distributing each logical qubit across many memories has a minimal impact on fault tolerance and results in substantially more efficient operations. Our design permits fast transversal application of CNOT operations between logical qubits sharing the same physical address (same set of cavities) which are 6x faster than standard lattice surgery CNOTs. We develop a novel embedding which saves approximately 10x in transmons with another 2x savings from an additional optimization for compactness. Although qubit virtualization pays a 10x penalty in serialization, advantages in the transversal CNOT and in area efficiency result in fault-tolerance and performance comparable to conventional 2D transmon-only architectures. Our simulations show our system can achieve fault tolerance comparable to conventional two-dimensional grids while saving substantial hardware. Furthermore, our architecture can produce magic states at 1.22x the baseline rate given a fixed number of transmon qubits. This is a critical benchmark for future fault-tolerant quantum computers as magic states are essential and machines will spend the majority of their resources continuously producing them. This architecture substantially reduces the hardware requirements for fault-tolerant quantum computing and puts within reach a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of around 10 logical qubits, requiring only 11 transmons and 9 attached cavities in total.more » « less
Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is an alternative model of quantum computation that is equivalent to the standard gate-based model and is the preferred approach for several optical quantum computing architectures. In MBQC, a quantum computation is executed by preparing an entangled cluster state and then selectively measuring qubits. MBQC can be made fault-tolerant by creating an MBQC computation that executes the standard surface code, an approach known as "foliation." Recent results on gate-based quantum computing have demonstrated that in the presence of biased noise, a modified version of the surface code known as the XZZX code has much higher thresholds than the standard surface code. However, naively foliating the XZZX code does not result in a high-threshold fault-tolerant MBQC, because the foliation procedure does not preserve the noise bias of the physical qubits. To create a high-threshold fault-tolerant MBQC, we introduce a modified cluster state that preserves the bias, and use our modified cluster state to construct an MBQC computation that executes the XZZX code. Using full circuit-level noise simulations, we show that the threshold of our modified MBQC is higher than either the standard fault-tolerant MBQC or the naïve foliated XZZX code in the presence of biased noise, demonstrating the advantage of our approach.more » « less
We study the effectiveness of quantum error correction against coherent noise. Coherent errors (for example, unitary noise) can interfere constructively, so that in some cases the average infidelity of a quantum circuit subjected to coherent errors may increase quadratically with the circuit size; in contrast, when errors are incoherent (for example, depolarizing noise), the average infidelity increases at worst linearly with circuit size. We consider the performance of quantum stabilizer codes against a noise model in which a unitary rotation is applied to each qubit, where the axes and angles of rotation are nearly the same for all qubits. In particular, we show that for the toric code subject to such independent coherent noise, and for minimal-weight decoding, the logical channel after error correction becomes increasingly incoherent as the length of the code increases, provided the noise strength decays inversely with the code distance. A similar conclusion holds for weakly correlated coherent noise. Our methods can also be used for analyzing the performance of other codes and fault-tolerant protocols against coherent noise. However, our result does not show that the coherence of the logical channel is suppressed in the more physically relevant case where the noise strength is held constant as the code block grows, and we recount the difficulties that prevented us from extending the result to that case. Nevertheless our work supports the idea that fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes will work effectively against coherent noise, providing encouraging news for quantum hardware builders who worry about the damaging effects of control errors and coherent interactions with the environment.