skip to main content

Title: Hyperspectral imaging-based exosome microarray for rapid molecular profiling of extracellular vesicles
One of the challenges of exploiting extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a disease biomarker is to differentiate EVs released by similar cell types or phenotypes. This paper reports a high-throughput and label-free EV microarray technology to differentiate EVs by simultaneous characterization of a panel of EV membrane proteins. The EsupplV microarray platform, which consists of an array of antibodies printed on a photonic crystal biosensor and a microscopic hyperspectral imaging technique, can rapidly assess the binding of the EV membrane proteins with their corresponding antibodies. The EV microarray assay requires only a 2 μL sample volume and a detection time of less than 2 h. The EV microarray assay was validated by not only quantifying seven membrane proteins carried by macrophage-derived EVs but also distinguishing the EVs secreted by three macrophage phenotypes. In particular, the EV microarray technology can generate a molecular fingerprint of target EVs that can be used to identify the EVs' parental cells, and thus has utility for basic science research as well as for point-of-care disease diagnostics and therapeutics.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Lab on a Chip
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
196 to 204
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Exosomes have been considered as high-quality biomarkers for disease diagnosis, as they are secreted by cells into extracellular environments as nanovesicles with rich and unique molecular information, and can be isolated and enriched from clinical samples. However, most existing exosome assays, to date, require time-consuming isolation and purification procedures; the detection specificity and sensitivity are also in need of improvement for the realization of exosome-based disease diagnostics. This paper reports a unique exosome assay technology that enables completing both magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based exosome extraction and high-sensitivity photonic crystal (PC)-based label-free exosome detection in a single miniature vessel within one hour, while providing an improved sensitivity and selectivity. High specificity of the assay to membrane antigens is realized by functionalizing both the MNPs and the PC with specific antibodies. A low limit of detection on the order of 10 7 exosome particles per milliliter (volume) is achieved because the conjugated MNP–exosome nanocomplexes offer a larger index change on the PC surface, compared to the exosomes alone without using MNPs. Briefly, the single-step exosome assay involves (i) forming specific MNP–exosome nanocomplexes to enrich exosomes from complex samples directly on the PC surface at the bottom of the vessel, with a >500 enrichmentmore »factor, and (ii) subsequently, performing in situ quantification of the nanocomplexes using the PC biosensor. The present exosome assay method is validated in analyzing multiple membrane proteins of exosomes derived from murine macrophage cells with high selectivity and sensitivity, while requiring only about one hour. This assay technology will provide great potential for exosome-based disease diagnostics.« less
  2. Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia (Ed.)
    Adenovirus (Ad) is a major causal agent of acute respiratory infections. However, they are a powerful delivery system for gene therapy and vaccines. Some Ad serotypes antagonize the immune system leading to meningitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and/or acute hemorrhagic cystitis. Studies have shown that the release of small, membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells via receptor-independent entry and how they influence disease pathogenesis and/or host protection considering their existence in almost all bodily fluids. We proposed that Ad3 could alter EV biogenesis, composition, and trafficking and may stimulate various immune responses in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of in vitro infection with Ad3 vector on EV biogenesis and composition in the human adenocarcinoma lung epithelial cell line A549. Cells were infected in an exosome-free media at different multiplicity of infections (MOIs) and time points. The cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and fluorometric calcein-AM. EVs were isolated via ultracentrifugation. Isolated EV proteins were quantified and evaluated via nanoparticle tracking, transmission electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting assays. The cell viability significantly decreased with an increase in MOI and incubation time. A significant increasemore »in particle mean sizes, concentrations, and total EV protein content was detected at higher MOIs when compared to uninfected cells (control group). A549 cell-derived EVs revealed the presence of TSG101, tetraspanins CD9 and CD63, and heat shock proteins 70 and 100 with significantly elevated levels of Rab5, 7, and 35 at higher MOIs (300, 750, and 1500) when compared to the controls. Our findings suggested Ad3 could modulate EV biogenesis, composition, and trafficking which could impact infection pathogenesis and disease progression. This study might suggest EVs could be diagnostic and therapeutic advancement to Ad infections and other related viral infections. However, further investigation is warranted to explore the underlying mechanism(s).« less
  3. The analysis of membranous extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes vesicles (EV) opens a new direction for the rapid disease diagnosis because EVs can carry molecular constituents of their originating cells. Secreted by mammalian cells, the size of most membrane-bound phospholipid EVs ranges from 50 to 150 nm in diameter. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of using EVs for cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. To diagnose infectious diseases using EVs, the ability to discriminate EVs from host cells and parasites is key. Here, we report a rapid EV analysis assay that can discriminate EVs based on a host-specific transmembrane protein (CD63 antigen) using a label-free optical biosensor.
  4. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) constitutes the majority of all ovarian cancer cases and has staggering rates of both refractory and recurrent disease. While most patients respond to the initial treatment with paclitaxel and platinum-based drugs, up to 25% do not, and of the remaining that do, 75% experience disease recurrence within the subsequent two years. Intrinsic resistance in refractory cases is driven by environmental stressors like tumor hypoxia which alter the tumor microenvironment to promote cancer progression and resistance to anticancer drugs. Recurrent disease describes the acquisition of chemoresistance whereby cancer cells survive the initial exposure to chemotherapy and develop adaptations to enhance their chances of surviving subsequent treatments. Of the environmental stressors cancer cells endure, exposure to hypoxia has been identified as a potent trigger and priming agent for the development of chemoresistance. Both in the presence of the stress of hypoxia or the therapeutic stress of chemotherapy, cancer cells manage to cope and develop adaptations which prime populations to survive in future stress. One adaptation is the modification in the secretome. Chemoresistance is associated with translational reprogramming for increased protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, and vesicle trafficking. This leads to increased production of soluble proteins and extracellular vesiclesmore »(EVs) involved in autocrine and paracrine signaling processes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that these factors are largely altered between the secretomes of chemosensitive and chemoresistant patients. Such factors include cytokines, growth factors, EVs, and EV-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs), which serve to induce invasive molecular, biophysical, and chemoresistant phenotypes in neighboring normal and cancer cells. This review examines the modifications in the secretome of distinct chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell populations and specific secreted factors, which may serve as candidate biomarkers for aggressive and chemoresistant cancers.« less
  5. Extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated transfer of biomolecules plays an essential role in intercellular communication and may improve targeted drug delivery. In the past decade, various approaches to EV surface modification for targeting specific cells or tissues have been proposed, including genetic engineering of parental cells or postproduction EV engineering. However, due to technical limitations, targeting moieties of engineered EVs have not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) EV reporter, PalmReNL-based dual-reporter platform for characterizing the cellular uptake of tumor-homing peptide (THP)-engineered EVs, targeting PDL1, uPAR, or EGFR proteins expressed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, simultaneously by bioluminescence measurement and fluorescence microscopy. Bioluminescence analysis of cellular EV uptake revealed the highest binding efficiency of uPAR-targeted EVs, whereas PDL1-targeted EVs showed slower cellular uptake. EVs engineered with two known EGFR-binding peptides via lipid nanoprobes did not increase cellular uptake, indicating that designs of EGFR-binding peptide conjugation to the EV surface are critical for functional EV engineering. Fluorescence analysis of cellular EV uptake allowed us to track individual PalmReNL-EVs bearing THPs in recipient cells. These results demonstrate that the PalmReNL-based EV assay platform can be a foundation for high-throughput screening of tumor-targeted EVs.