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Title: A Two-Moment Inequality with Applications to Rényi Entropy and Mutual Information
This paper explores some applications of a two-moment inequality for the integral of the rth power of a function, where 0 more » « less
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National Science Foundation
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  1. null (Ed.)
    For probabilistic programs, it is usually not possible to automatically derive exact information about their properties, such as the distribution of states at a given program point. Instead, one can attempt to derive approximations, such as upper bounds on tail probabilities. Such bounds can be obtained via concentration inequalities, which rely on the moments of a distribution, such as the expectation (the first raw moment) or the variance (the second central moment). Tail bounds obtained using central moments are often tighter than the ones obtained using raw moments, but automatically analyzing central moments is more challenging. This paper presents an analysis for probabilistic programs that automatically derives symbolic upper and lower bounds on variances, as well as higher central moments, of cost accumulators. To overcome the challenges of higher-moment analysis, it generalizes analyses for expectations with an algebraic abstraction that simultaneously analyzes different moments, utilizing relations between them. A key innovation is the notion of moment-polymorphic recursion, and a practical derivation system that handles recursive functions. The analysis has been implemented using a template-based technique that reduces the inference of polynomial bounds to linear programming. Experiments with our prototype central-moment analyzer show that, despite the analyzer’s upper/lower bounds on various quantities, it obtains tighter tail bounds than an existing system that uses only raw moments, such as expectations. 
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  2. Abstract

    We study the distribution over measurement outcomes of noisy random quantum circuits in the regime of low fidelity, which corresponds to the setting where the computation experiences at least one gate-level error with probability close to one. We model noise by adding a pair of weak, unital, single-qubit noise channels after each two-qubit gate, and we show that for typical random circuit instances, correlations between the noisy output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$pnoisyand the corresponding noiseless output distribution$$p_{\text {ideal}}$$pidealshrink exponentially with the expected number of gate-level errors. Specifically, the linear cross-entropy benchmarkFthat measures this correlation behaves as$$F=\text {exp}(-2s\epsilon \pm O(s\epsilon ^2))$$F=exp(-2sϵ±O(sϵ2)), where$$\epsilon $$ϵis the probability of error per circuit location andsis the number of two-qubit gates. Furthermore, if the noise is incoherent—for example, depolarizing or dephasing noise—the total variation distance between the noisy output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$pnoisyand the uniform distribution$$p_{\text {unif}}$$punifdecays at precisely the same rate. Consequently, the noisy output distribution can be approximated as$$p_{\text {noisy}}\approx Fp_{\text {ideal}}+ (1-F)p_{\text {unif}}$$pnoisyFpideal+(1-F)punif. In other words, although at least one local error occurs with probability$$1-F$$1-F, the errors are scrambled by the random quantum circuit and can be treated as global white noise, contributing completely uniform output. Importantly, we upper bound the average total variation error in this approximation by$$O(F\epsilon \sqrt{s})$$O(Fϵs). Thus, the “white-noise approximation” is meaningful when$$\epsilon \sqrt{s} \ll 1$$ϵs1, a quadratically weaker condition than the$$\epsilon s\ll 1$$ϵs1requirement to maintain high fidelity. The bound applies if the circuit size satisfies$$s \ge \Omega (n\log (n))$$sΩ(nlog(n)), which corresponds to onlylogarithmic depthcircuits, and if, additionally, the inverse error rate satisfies$$\epsilon ^{-1} \ge {\tilde{\Omega }}(n)$$ϵ-1Ω~(n), which is needed to ensure errors are scrambled faster thanFdecays. The white-noise approximation is useful for salvaging the signal from a noisy quantum computation; for example, it was an underlying assumption in complexity-theoretic arguments that noisy random quantum circuits cannot be efficiently sampled classically, even when the fidelity is low. Our method is based on a map from second-moment quantities in random quantum circuits to expectation values of certain stochastic processes for which we compute upper and lower bounds.

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  4. Summary

    The upper bounds on the coverage probabilities of the confidence regions based on blockwise empirical likelihood and non-standard expansive empirical likelihood methods for time series data are investigated via studying the probability of violating the convex hull constraint. The large sample bounds are derived on the basis of the pivotal limit of the blockwise empirical log-likelihood ratio obtained under fixed b asymptotics, which has recently been shown to provide a more accurate approximation to the finite sample distribution than the conventional χ2-approximation. Our theoretical and numerical findings suggest that both the finite sample and the large sample upper bounds for coverage probabilities are strictly less than 1 and the blockwise empirical likelihood confidence region can exhibit serious undercoverage when the dimension of moment conditions is moderate or large, the time series dependence is positively strong or the block size is large relative to the sample size. A similar finite sample coverage problem occurs for non-standard expansive empirical likelihood. To alleviate the coverage bound problem, we propose to penalize both empirical likelihood methods by relaxing the convex hull constraint. Numerical simulations and data illustrations demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed remedies in terms of delivering confidence sets with more accurate coverage. Some technical details and additional simulation results are included in on-line supplemental material.

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  5. Abstract

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