skip to main content

Title: Effect of sequence depth and length in long-read assembly of the maize inbred NC358
Abstract

Improvements in long-read data and scaffolding technologies have enabled rapid generation of reference-quality assemblies for complex genomes. Still, an assessment of critical sequence depth and read length is important for allocating limited resources. To this end, we have generated eight assemblies for the complex genome of the maize inbred line NC358 using PacBio datasets ranging from 20 to 75 × genomic depth and with N50 subread lengths of 11–21 kb. Assemblies with ≤30 × depth and N50 subread length of 11 kb are highly fragmented, with even low-copy genic regions showing degradation at 20 × depth. Distinct sequence-quality thresholds are observed for complete assembly of genes, transposable elements, and highly repetitive genomic features such as telomeres, heterochromatic knobs, and centromeres. In addition, we show high-quality optical maps can dramatically improve contiguity in even our most fragmented base assembly. This study provides a useful resource allocation reference to the community as long-read technologies continue to mature.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
1744001
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10226860
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Volume:
11
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Gossmann, Toni (Ed.)
    Abstract Spiders (Araneae) have a diverse spectrum of morphologies, behaviors, and physiologies. Attempts to understand the genomic-basis of this diversity are often hindered by their large, heterozygous, and AT-rich genomes with high repeat content resulting in highly fragmented, poor-quality assemblies. As a result, the key attributes of spider genomes, including gene family evolution, repeat content, and gene function, remain poorly understood. Here, we used Illumina and Dovetail Chicago technologies to sequence the genome of the long-jawed spider Tetragnatha kauaiensis, producing an assembly distributed along 3,925 scaffolds with an N50 of ∼2 Mb. Using comparative genomics tools, we explore genome evolution across available spider assemblies. Our findings suggest that the previously reported and vast genome size variation in spiders is linked to the different representation and number of transposable elements. Using statistical tools to uncover gene-family level evolution, we find expansions associated with the sensory perception of taste, immunity, and metabolism. In addition, we report strikingly different histories of chemosensory, venom, and silk gene families, with the first two evolving much earlier, affected by the ancestral whole genome duplication in Arachnopulmonata (∼450 Ma) and exhibiting higher numbers. Together, our findings reveal that spider genomes are highly variable and that genomic noveltymore »may have been driven by the burst of an ancient whole genome duplication, followed by gene family and transposable element expansion.« less
  2. Abstract

    Rapid technological improvements are democratizing access to high quality, chromosome-scale genome assemblies. No longer the domain of only the most highly studied model organisms, now non-traditional and emerging model species can be genome-enabled using a combination of sequencing technologies and assembly software. Consequently, old ideas built on sparse sampling across the tree of life have recently been amended in the face of genomic data drawn from a growing number of high-quality reference genomes. Arguably the most valuable are those long-studied species for which much is already known about their biology; what many term emerging model species. Here, we report a highly complete chromosome-scale genome assembly for the brown anole,Anolis sagrei– a lizard species widely studied across a variety of disciplines and for which a high-quality reference genome was long overdue. This assembly exceeds the vast majority of existing reptile and snake genomes in contiguity (N50 = 253.6 Mb) and annotation completeness. Through the analysis of this genome and population resequence data, we examine the history of repetitive element accumulation, identify the X chromosome, and propose a hypothesis for the evolutionary history of fusions between autosomes and the X that led to the sex chromosomes ofA. sagrei.

  3. Abstract Background The release of the first reference genome of walnut (Juglans regia L.) enabled many achievements in the characterization of walnut genetic and functional variation. However, it is highly fragmented, preventing the integration of genetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic information to fully elucidate walnut biological processes. Findings Here, we report the new chromosome-scale assembly of the walnut reference genome (Chandler v2.0) obtained by combining Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing with chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technology. Relative to the previous reference genome, the new assembly features an 84.4-fold increase in N50 size, with the 16 chromosomal pseudomolecules assembled and representing 95% of its total length. Using full-length transcripts from single-molecule real-time sequencing, we predicted 37,554 gene models, with a mean gene length higher than the previous gene annotations. Most of the new protein-coding genes (90%) present both start and stop codons, which represents a significant improvement compared with Chandler v1.0 (only 48%). We then tested the potential impact of the new chromosome-level genome on different areas of walnut research. By studying the proteome changes occurring during male flower development, we observed that the virtual proteome obtained from Chandler v2.0 presents fewer artifacts than the previous reference genome, enabling the identification of amore »new potential pollen allergen in walnut. Also, the new chromosome-scale genome facilitates in-depth studies of intraspecies genetic diversity by revealing previously undetected autozygous regions in Chandler, likely resulting from inbreeding, and 195 genomic regions highly differentiated between Western and Eastern walnut cultivars. Conclusion Overall, Chandler v2.0 will serve as a valuable resource to better understand and explore walnut biology.« less
  4. Viruses play crucial roles in the ecology of microbial communities, yet they remain relatively understudied in their native environments. Despite many advancements in high-throughput whole-genome sequencing (WGS), sequence assembly, and annotation of viruses, the reconstruction of full-length viral genomes directly from metagenomic sequencing is possible only for the most abundant phages and requires long-read sequencing technologies. Additionally, the prediction of their cellular hosts remains difficult from conventional metagenomic sequencing alone. To address these gaps in the field and to accelerate the study of viruses directly in their native microbiomes, we developed an end-to-end bioinformatics platform for viral genome reconstruction and host attribution from metagenomic data using proximity-ligation sequencing (i.e., Hi-C). We demonstrate the capabilities of the platform by recovering and characterizing the metavirome of a variety of metagenomes, including a fecal microbiome that has also been sequenced with accurate long reads, allowing for the assessment and benchmarking of the new methods. The platform can accurately extract numerous near-complete viral genomes even from highly fragmented short-read assemblies and can reliably predict their cellular hosts with minimal false positives. To our knowledge, this is the first software for performing these tasks. Being significantly cheaper than long-read sequencing of comparable depth, the incorporationmore »of proximity-ligation sequencing in microbiome research shows promise to greatly accelerate future advancements in the field.« less
  5. Background

    Metagenomics has transformed our understanding of microbial diversity across ecosystems, with recent advances enablingde novoassembly of genomes from metagenomes. These metagenome-assembled genomes are critical to provide ecological, evolutionary, and metabolic context for all the microbes and viruses yet to be cultivated. Metagenomes can now be generated from nanogram to subnanogram amounts of DNA. However, these libraries require several rounds of PCR amplification before sequencing, and recent data suggest these typically yield smaller and more fragmented assemblies than regular metagenomes.

    Methods

    Here we evaluatede novoassembly methods of 169 PCR-amplified metagenomes, including 25 for which an unamplified counterpart is available, to optimize specific assembly approaches for PCR-amplified libraries. We first evaluated coverage bias by mapping reads from PCR-amplified metagenomes onto reference contigs obtained from unamplified metagenomes of the same samples. Then, we compared different assembly pipelines in terms of assembly size (number of bp in contigs ≥ 10 kb) and error rates to evaluate which are the best suited for PCR-amplified metagenomes.

    Results

    Read mapping analyses revealed that the depth of coverage within individual genomes is significantly more uneven in PCR-amplified datasets versus unamplified metagenomes, with regions of high depth of coverage enriched in short inserts. This enrichment scales with the number of PCRmore »cycles performed, and is presumably due to preferential amplification of short inserts. Standard assembly pipelines are confounded by this type of coverage unevenness, so we evaluated other assembly options to mitigate these issues. We found that a pipeline combining read deduplication and an assembly algorithm originally designed to recover genomes from libraries generated after whole genome amplification (single-cell SPAdes) frequently improved assembly of contigs ≥10 kb by 10 to 100-fold for low input metagenomes.

    Conclusions

    PCR-amplified metagenomes have enabled scientists to explore communities traditionally challenging to describe, including some with extremely low biomass or from which DNA is particularly difficult to extract. Here we show that a modified assembly pipeline can lead to an improvedde novogenome assembly from PCR-amplified datasets, and enables a better genome recovery from low input metagenomes.

    « less