skip to main content

Title: Impact of Dimensionality on Optoelectronic Properties of Hybrid Perovskites
Organometal halides are promising materials for photovoltaic applications, offering tunable electronic levels, excellent charge transport, and simplicity of thin-film device fabrication. Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as promising candidates over three-dimensional (3D) ones due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. However, maximizing the power conversion efficiency is a critical issue to improve the performance of these solar cells. In this work, we studied the photophysics of a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2 thin film using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy and compared it with the three-dimensional (3D) counterpart CH3NH3PbI3. We observed a higher bandgap and faster charge recombination in (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2 compared to CH3NH3PbI3. This work provides an improved understanding of fundamental photophysical processes in perovskite structures and provides the guideline for the design, synthesis, and fabrication of solar cells.
; ; ; ;
Khadka, Dhruba B.
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
International Journal of Photoenergy
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 7
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Conjugated molecules have been typically utilized as either hole or electron extraction layers to boost the device performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), formed from three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, due to their high charge carrier mobility and electrical conductivity. However, the passivating role of conjugated molecules in creating two-dimensional (2D) perovskites has rarely been reported. In this study, we report novel conjugated aniline 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-amine (PPA) based 2D perovskites and further demonstrate efficient and stable PSCs containing a (PPA) x (MAPbI 3 ) 1− x /MAPbI 3 bilayer thin film (where MA is CH 3 NH 3 + ). The (PPA) xmore »(MAPbI 3 ) 1− x /MAPbI 3 bilayer thin film possesses superior crystallinity and passivated trap states, resulting in enhanced charge transport and suppressed charge carrier recombination compared to those of a 3D MAPbI 3 thin film. As a result, PSCs containing the (PPA) x (MAPbI 3 ) 1− x /MAPbI 3 bilayer thin film exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.98%, which is approximately a 25% enhancement compared to that of the MAPbI 3 thin film. Moreover, un-encapsulated PSCs containing the (PPA) x (MAPbI 3 ) 1− x /MAPbI 3 bilayer thin film retain 50% of their initial PCE after 1200 hours in an ambient atmosphere (25 °C, and 30 ± 10 humidity), whereas PSCs with the 3D MAPbI 3 thin film show significant degradation after 100 hours and a degradation of more than 50% of their original PCE after 500 hours. These results demonstrate that the incorporation of conjugated molecules as organic spacer cations to create 2D perovskites on top of 3D perovskites is an effective way to approach high-performance PSCs.« less
  2. Perovskites have been firmly established as one of the most promising materials for third-generation solar cells. There remain several great and lingering challenges to be addressed regarding device efficiency and stability. The photovoltaic efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) depends drastically on the charge-carrier dynamics. This complex process includes charge-carrier generation, extraction, transport and collection, each of which needs to be modulated in a favorable manner to achieve high performance. Two-dimensional materials (TDMs) including graphene and its derivatives, transition metal dichalcogenides ( e.g. , MoS 2 , WS 2 ), black phosphorus (BP), metal nanosheets and two-dimensional (2D) perovskite activemore »layers have attracted much attention for application in perovskite solar cells due to their high carrier mobility and tunable work function properties which greatly impact the charge carrier dynamics of PSCs. To date, significant advances have been achieved in the field of TDM-based PSCs. In this review, the recent progress in the development and application of TDMs ( i.e. , graphene, graphdiyne, transition metal dichalcogenides, BP, and others) as electrodes, hole transporting layers, electron transporting layers and buffer layers in PSCs is detailed. 2D perovskites as active absorber materials in PSCs are also summarized. The effect of TDMs and 2D perovskites on the charge carrier dynamics of PSCs is discussed to provide a comprehensive understanding of their optoelectronic processes. The challenges facing the PSC devices are emphasized with corresponding solutions to these problems provided with the overall goal of improving the efficiency and stability of photovoltaic devices.« less
  3. The remarkable optoelectronic properties of metal halide perovskites have generated intense research interest over the last few years. The ability to control and manipulate the crystallisation and stoichiometry of perovskite thin-films has allowed for impressive strides in the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. However, being able to effectively modify the interfaces of metal halide perovskites, and to controllably p- or n-type dope the surfaces, may be key to further improvements in the efficiency and long-term stability of these devices. In this study, we use surface doping of the mixed-cation, mixed-halide perovskite FA 0.85 MA 0.15 Pb(I 0.85 Brmore »0.15 ) 3 (FA – formamidinium; MA – methylammonium) to improve the hole extraction from the perovskite solar cell. By treating the surface of the perovskite film with a strongly oxidizing molybdenum tris(dithiolene) complex, we achieve a shift in the work function that is indicative of p-doping, and a twofold increase in the total conductivity throughout the film. We probe the associated interfacial chemistry through photoelectron and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and confirm that charge-transfer occurs between the perovskite and dopant complex. The resulting p-doped interface constitutes a homojunction with increased hole-selectivity. With charge-selective layers, we show that this surface doping enhances the device performance of perovskite solar cells resulting in steady-state efficiencies approaching 21%. Finally, we demonstrate that a surface treatment with this dopant produces the same effect as the commonly employed additive 4- tert butylpyridine ( t BP), allowing us to achieve “ t BP-free” devices with steady-state efficiencies of over 20%, and enhanced thermal stability as compared to devices processed using t BP. Our findings therefore demonstrate that molecular doping is a feasible route to tune and control the surface properties of metal halide perovskites.« less
  4. Abstract

    Two-dimensional (2D) ternary materials recently generated interest in optoelectronics and energy-related applications, alongside their binary counterparts. To date, only a few naturally occurring layered 2D ternary materials have been explored. The plethora of benefits owed to reduced dimensionality prompted exploration of expanding non-layered ternary chalcogenides into the 2D realm. This work presents a templating method that uses 2D transition metal dichalcogenides as initiators to be converted into the corresponding ternary chalcogenide upon addition of copper, via a solution-phase synthesis, conducted in high boiling point solvents. The process starts with preparation of VSe2nanosheets, which are next converted into Cu3VSe4sulvanite nanosheetsmore »(NSs) which retain the 2D geometry while presenting an X-ray diffraction pattern identical with the one for the bulk Cu3VSe4. Both the scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy electron microscopy show the presence of quasi-2D morphology. Recent studies of the sulfur-containing sulvanite Cu3VS4highlight the presence of an intermediate bandgap, associated with enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance. The Cu3VSe4nanosheets reported herein exhibit multiple UV–Vis absorption peaks, related to the intermediate bandgaps similar to Cu3VS4and Cu3VSe4nanocrystals. To test the potential of Cu3VSe4NSs as an absorber for solar photovoltaic devices, Cu3VSe4NSs thin-films deposited on FTO were subjected to photoelectrochemical testing, showing p-type behavior and stable photocurrents of up to ~ 0.036 mA/cm2. The photocurrent shows a ninefold increase in comparison to reported performance of Cu3VSe4nanocrystals. This proves that quasi-2D sulvanite nanosheets are amenable to thin-film deposition and could show superior PV performance in comparison to nanocrystal thin-films. The obtained electrical impedance spectroscopy signal of the Cu3VSeNSs-FTO based electrochemical cell fits an equivalent circuit with the circuit elements of solution resistance (Rs), charge-transfer resistance (Rct), double-layer capacitance (Cdl), and Warburg impedance (W). The estimated charge transfer resistance value of 300 Ω cm2obtained from the Nyquist plot provides an insight into the rate of charge transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface.

    « less
  5. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are a promising photovoltaic (PV) technology for producing power in space owing to their high-efficiency (> 22.1 %), potential for specific power, and cost-effective manufacturing processes. In contrast to traditional space PVs, the high-Z (atomic number) CdTe absorbers can be intrinsically robust under extreme space radiation, offering long-term stability. Despite these advantages, the performance assessment of CdTe solar cells under high-energy particle irradiation (e.g., photons, neutrons, charged particles) is limited in the literature, and their stability is not comprehensively studied. In this work, we present the PV response of n-CdS / p-CdTe PVs under acceleratedmore »neutron irradiation. We measure PV properties of the devices at different neutron/photon doses. The equivalent dose deposited in the CdTe samples is simulated with deterministic and Monte Carlo radiation transport methods. Thin-film CdTe solar cells were synthesized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate (≈ 4 cm × 4 cm). CdS:O (≈ 100 nm) was reactively RF sputtered in an oxygen/argon ambient followed by a close-spaced sublimation deposition of CdTe (≈ 3.5 μm) in an oxygen/helium ambient. The sample was exposed to a 10 min vapor CdCl2 in oxygen/helium ambient at 430˚C. The samples were exposed to a wet CuCl2 solution prior to anneal 200ºC. A gold back-contact was formed on CdTe via thermal evaporation. The final sample contains 16 CdTe devices. For neutron irradiation, we cleaved the CdTe substrate into four samples and exposed two samples to ≈ 90 kW reactor power neutron radiation for 5.5 hours and 8.2 hours, respectively, in our TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) reactor. We observed a noticeable color change of the glass substrates to brown after the neutron/gamma reactor exposure. Presumably, the injected high-energy neutrons caused the breaking of chemical bonds and the displacement of atoms in the glass substrates, creating point defects and color centers. The I-V characteristics showed noticeable deterioration with over 8 hour radiations. Specifically, the saturation current of the control devices was ≈ 25 nA increasing to 1 μA and 10 μA for the 5.5-hour and 8.2-hour radiated samples, respectively. The turn-on voltage of the control devices (≈ 0.85 V) decreased with the irradiated sample (≈ 0.75 V for 5.5-hour and ≈ 0.5 V for 8.2-hour exposures), implying noticeable radiation damage occurred at the heterojunction. The higher values of the ideality factor for irradiated devices (n > 2.2) compared to that of the control devices (n ≈ 1.3) also support the deterioration of the p-n junction. We observed the notable decrease in shunt resistance (RSH) and the increase in series resistance (Rs) with the neutron dose. It is possible that Cu ions introduced during the CuCl2 treatment may migrate into CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). The presence of Cu ions at GBs can create additional leakage paths for photocarrier transport, deteriorating the overall PV performance. We estimated the radiation dose of CdTe in comparison to Si (conventional PV) using a UUTR model (e.g., MCNP6 2D UTR Reactor simulations). In this model, we simulated Si and CdTe at the center point of the triangular fuel lattice and used an “unperturbed flux” tally in the water. Our simulations yielded a dose rate of 6916 Gy/s of neutrons and 16 Gy/s of photons for CdTe, and 1 Gy/s of neutrons and 21 Gy/s of photons for Si (doses +/- <1%). The large dose rate of neutrons in CdTe is mainly attributed to the large thermal neutron absorption cross-section of 113Cd. Based on this estimation, we calculate that the exposure of our CdTe PVs is equivalent to several million years in LEO (Low-Earth Orbit), or about 10,000 years for Si in LEO. Currently, we are working on a low-dose neutron/photon radiation on CdTe PVs and their light I-Vs and microstructural characterizations to gain better understanding on the degradation of CdTe PVs.« less