The hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) concept, previously shown to enable superior material quality and high performance devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors, such as Ga(Al)N and SiC, has been applied to the epitaxial growth of β-Ga 2 O 3 . Epitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers at high growth rates (above 1 μm/h), at low reagent flows, and at reduced growth temperatures (740 °C) are demonstrated. A high crystalline quality epitaxial material on a c-plane sapphire substrate is attained as corroborated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The hot-wall MOCVD process is transferred to homoepitaxy, and single-crystalline homoepitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers are demonstrated with a [Formula: see text]01 rocking curve width of 118 arc sec, which is comparable to those of the edge-defined film-fed grown ([Formula: see text]01) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates, indicative of similar dislocation densities for epilayers and substrates. Hence, hot-wall MOCVD is proposed as a prospective growth method to be further explored for the fabrication of β-Ga 2 O 3 .
Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of ultrathin Ga 2 O 3 nanowires
Gallium oxide (Ga 2 O 3 ) and its most stable modification, monoclinic β-Ga 2 O 3 , is emerging as a primary material for power electronic devices, gas sensors and optical devices due to a high breakdown voltage, large bandgap, and optical transparency combined with electrical conductivity. Growth of β-Ga 2 O 3 is challenging and most methods require very high temperatures. Nanowires of β-Ga 2 O 3 have been investigated extensively as they might be advantageous for devices such as nanowire field effect transistors, and gas sensors benefiting from a large surface to volume ratio, among others. Here, we report a synthesis approach using a sulfide precursor (Ga 2 S 3 ), which requires relatively low substrate temperatures and short growth times to produce high-quality single crystalline β-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires in high yields. Even though Au- or Ag-rich nanoparticles are invariably observed at the nanowire tips, they merely serve as nucleation seeds while the nanowire growth proceeds via supply and local oxidation of gallium at the substrate interface. Absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on individual nanowires confirms a wide bandgap of 4.63 eV and strong luminescence with a maximum ∼2.7 eV. Determining the growth process, morphology, composition more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Materials Chemistry C
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 11555 to 11562
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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We present a review of the published experimental and simulation radiation damage results in Ga 2 O 3 . All of the polytypes of Ga 2 O 3 are expected to show similar radiation resistance as GaN and SiC, considering their average bond strengths. However, this is not enough to explain the orders of magnitude difference of the relative resistance to radiation damage of these materials compared to GaAs and dynamic annealing of defects is much more effective in Ga 2 O 3 . It is important to examine the effect of all types of radiation, given that Ga 2 O 3 devices will potentially be deployed both in space and terrestrial applications. Octahedral gallium monovacancies are the main defects produced under most radiation conditions because of the larger cross-section for interaction compared to oxygen vacancies. Proton irradiation introduces two main paramagnetic defects in Ga 2 O 3 , which are stable at room temperature. Charge carrier removal can be explained by Fermi-level pinning far from the conduction band minimum due to gallium interstitials (Ga i ), vacancies (V Ga ), and antisites (Ga O ). One of the most important parameters to establish is the carrier removal rate formore »
Abstract Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) is attracting intense focus as a material for power electronics, thanks to its ultra-wide bandgap (4.5–4.8 eV) and ability to be easily doped n -type. Because the holes self-trap, the band-edge luminescence is weak; hence, β-Ga 2 O 3 has not been regarded as a promising material for light emission. In this work, optical and structural imaging methods revealed the presence of localized surface defects that emit in the near-UV (3.27 eV, 380 nm) when excited by sub-bandgap light. The PL emission of these centers is extremely bright—50 times brighter than that of single-crystal ZnO, a direct-gap semiconductor that has been touted as an active material for UV devices.
There is increasing interest in the alpha polytype of Ga 2 O 3 because of its even larger bandgap than the more studied beta polytype, but in common with the latter, there is no viable p-type doping technology. One option is to use p-type oxides to realize heterojunctions and NiO is one of the candidate oxides. The band alignment of sputtered NiO on α-Ga 2 O 3 remains type II, staggered gap for annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, showing that this is a viable approach for hole injection in power electronic devices based on the alpha polytype of Ga 2 O 3 . The magnitude of both the conduction and valence band offsets increases with temperature up to 500 °C, but then is stable to 600 °C. For the as-deposited NiO/α-Ga 2 O 3 heterojunction, ΔE V = −2.8 and ΔE C = 1.6 eV, while after 600 °C annealing the corresponding values are ΔE V = −4.4 and ΔE C = 3.02 eV. These values are 1−2 eV larger than for the NiO/β-Ga 2 O 3 heterojunction.
In situ MOCVD growth and band offsets of Al 2 O 3 dielectric on β-Ga 2 O 3 and β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin filmsThe in situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of Al 2 O 3 dielectrics on β-Ga 2 O 3 and β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films is investigated as a function of crystal orientations and Al compositions of β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films. The interface and film qualities of Al 2 O 3 dielectrics are evaluated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, which indicate the growth of high-quality amorphous Al 2 O 3 dielectrics with abrupt interfaces on (010), (100), and [Formula: see text] oriented β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films. The surface stoichiometries of Al 2 O 3 deposited on all orientations of β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 are found to be well maintained with a bandgap energy of 6.91 eV as evaluated by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is consistent with the atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2 O 3 dielectrics. The evolution of band offsets at both in situ MOCVD and ex situ ALD deposited Al 2 O 3 /β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 is determined as a function of Al composition, indicating the influence of themore »