skip to main content

Title: Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of ultrathin Ga 2 O 3 nanowires
Gallium oxide (Ga 2 O 3 ) and its most stable modification, monoclinic β-Ga 2 O 3 , is emerging as a primary material for power electronic devices, gas sensors and optical devices due to a high breakdown voltage, large bandgap, and optical transparency combined with electrical conductivity. Growth of β-Ga 2 O 3 is challenging and most methods require very high temperatures. Nanowires of β-Ga 2 O 3 have been investigated extensively as they might be advantageous for devices such as nanowire field effect transistors, and gas sensors benefiting from a large surface to volume ratio, among others. Here, we report a synthesis approach using a sulfide precursor (Ga 2 S 3 ), which requires relatively low substrate temperatures and short growth times to produce high-quality single crystalline β-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires in high yields. Even though Au- or Ag-rich nanoparticles are invariably observed at the nanowire tips, they merely serve as nucleation seeds while the nanowire growth proceeds via supply and local oxidation of gallium at the substrate interface. Absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on individual nanowires confirms a wide bandgap of 4.63 eV and strong luminescence with a maximum ∼2.7 eV. Determining the growth process, morphology, composition and optoelectronic properties on the single nanowire level is key to further application of the β-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires in electronic devices.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Page Range / eLocation ID:
11555 to 11562
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Beta gallium oxide (β‐Ga2O3) has emerged as a highly promising semiconductor material with an ultrawide bandgap ranging from 4.5 to 4.9 eV for future applications in power electronics, optoelectronics, as well as gas and ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensors. Here, surface adsorption and air damping behavior of doubly clamped β‐Ga2O3nanomechanical resonators are probed and systemically studied by measuring the resonance characteristics under different gas and pressure conditions. High responsivities of resonance to pressure are obtained by heating the devices up to 300 °C to induce an accelerated adsorption–desorption process. The initial surface conditions of the β‐Ga2O3thin film play important roles in affecting the resonant behavior. UV ozone treatment proves effective in altering the initial surface conditions of β‐Ga2O3nanosheets by eliminating physisorbed contaminants and filling oxygen vacancy defects residing on the surface, resulting in a consequential and discernible modification of the resonance behavior of β‐Ga2O3nanomechanical resonators. The surface adsorption and desorption processes in β‐Ga2O3demonstrate clear reversibility by exposing the UV treated β‐Ga2O3to air. This study attains first‐hand information on how the surface conditions of β‐Ga2O3affect its mechanical properties, and helps guide future development of transducers via β‐Ga2O3nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) for pressure sensing applications, especially in harsh environments.

    more » « less
    more » « less
  3. The hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) concept, previously shown to enable superior material quality and high performance devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors, such as Ga(Al)N and SiC, has been applied to the epitaxial growth of β-Ga 2 O 3 . Epitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers at high growth rates (above 1 μm/h), at low reagent flows, and at reduced growth temperatures (740 °C) are demonstrated. A high crystalline quality epitaxial material on a c-plane sapphire substrate is attained as corroborated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The hot-wall MOCVD process is transferred to homoepitaxy, and single-crystalline homoepitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers are demonstrated with a [Formula: see text]01 rocking curve width of 118 arc sec, which is comparable to those of the edge-defined film-fed grown ([Formula: see text]01) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates, indicative of similar dislocation densities for epilayers and substrates. Hence, hot-wall MOCVD is proposed as a prospective growth method to be further explored for the fabrication of β-Ga 2 O 3 . 
    more » « less
  4. Gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) is becoming a popular material for high power electronic devices due to its wide bandgap and ease of processing. In this work, β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates received various annealing treatments before atomic layer deposition of HfO 2 and subsequent fabrication of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Annealing of β-Ga 2 O 3 with forming gas or nitrogen produced degraded capacitance–voltage (C–V) behavior compared to a β-Ga 2 O 3 control sample with no annealing. A sample annealed with pure oxygen had improved C–V characteristics relative to the control sample, with a higher maximum capacitance and smaller flat-band voltage shift, indicating that oxygen annealing improved the C–V behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also suggested a reduction in the oxygen vacancy concentration after O 2 annealing at 450 °C, which supports the improved C–V characteristics and indicates that O 2 annealing of β-Ga 2 O 3 may lead to better MOS device performance. 
    more » « less
  5. We present a review of the published experimental and simulation radiation damage results in Ga 2 O 3 . All of the polytypes of Ga 2 O 3 are expected to show similar radiation resistance as GaN and SiC, considering their average bond strengths. However, this is not enough to explain the orders of magnitude difference of the relative resistance to radiation damage of these materials compared to GaAs and dynamic annealing of defects is much more effective in Ga 2 O 3 . It is important to examine the effect of all types of radiation, given that Ga 2 O 3 devices will potentially be deployed both in space and terrestrial applications. Octahedral gallium monovacancies are the main defects produced under most radiation conditions because of the larger cross-section for interaction compared to oxygen vacancies. Proton irradiation introduces two main paramagnetic defects in Ga 2 O 3 , which are stable at room temperature. Charge carrier removal can be explained by Fermi-level pinning far from the conduction band minimum due to gallium interstitials (Ga i ), vacancies (V Ga ), and antisites (Ga O ). One of the most important parameters to establish is the carrier removal rate for each type of radiation, since this directly impacts the current in devices such as transistors or rectifiers. When compared to the displacement damage predicted by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter(SRIM) code, the carrier removal rates are generally much lower and take into account the electrical nature of the defects created. With few experimental or simulation studies on single event effects (SEE) in Ga 2 O 3 , it is apparent that while other wide bandgap semiconductors like SiC and GaN are robust against displacement damage and total ionizing dose, they display significant vulnerability to single event effects at high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and at much lower biases than expected. We have analyzed the transient response of β -Ga 2 O 3 rectifiers to heavy-ion strikes via TCAD simulations. Using field metal rings improves the breakdown voltage and biasing those rings can help control the breakdown voltage. Such biased rings help in the removal of the charge deposited by the ion strike. 
    more » « less