- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- IEEE Conference on Games
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 41 to 48
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Though generative adversarial networks (GANs) are prominent models to generate realistic and crisp images, they are unstable to train and suffer from the mode collapse problem. The problems of GANs come from approximating the intrinsic discontinuous distribution transform map with continuous DNNs. The recently proposed AE-OT model addresses the discontinuity problem by explicitly computing the discontinuous optimal transform map in the latent space of the autoencoder. Though have no mode collapse, the generated images by AE-OT are blurry. In this paper, we propose the AE-OT-GAN model to utilize the advantages of the both models: generate high quality images and at the same time overcome the mode collapse problems. Specifically, we firstly embed the low dimensional image manifold into the latent space by autoencoder (AE). Then the extended semi-discrete optimal transport (SDOT) map is used to generate new latent codes. Finally, our GAN model is trained to generate high quality images from the latent distribution induced by the extended SDOT map. The distribution transform map from this dataset related latent distribution to the data distribution will be continuous, and thus can be well approximated by the continuous DNNs. Additionally, the paired data between the latent codes and the real images givesmore »
A Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is an unsupervised generative framework to generate a sample distribution that is identical to the data distribution. Recently, mix strategy multi-generator/discriminator GANs have been shown to outperform single pair GANs. However, the mixed model suffers from the problem of linearly growing training time. Also, imbalanced training among generators makes it difficult to parallelize. In this paper, we propose a balanced mix-generator GAN that works in parallel by mixing multiple disjoint generators to approximate the real distribution. The weights of the discriminator and the classifier are controlled by a balance strategy. We also present an efficient loss function, to force each generator to embrace few modes with a high probability. Our model is naturally adaptive to large parallel computation frameworks. Each generator can be trained on multiple GPUs asynchronously. We have performed extensive experiments on synthetic datasets, MNIST1000, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet. The results establish that our model can achieve the state-of-the-art performance (in terms of the modes coverage and the inception score), with significantly reduced training time. We also show that the missing mode problem can be relieved with a growing number of generators.
Electronic medical records (EMRs) can support medical research and discovery, but privacy risks limit the sharing of such data on a wide scale. Various approaches have been developed to mitigate risk, including record simulation via generative adversarial networks (GANs). While showing promise in certain application domains, GANs lack a principled approach for EMR data that induces subpar simulation. In this article, we improve EMR simulation through a novel pipeline that (1) enhances the learning model, (2) incorporates evaluation criteria for data utility that informs learning, and (3) refines the training process.
Materials and Methods
We propose a new electronic health record generator using a GAN with a Wasserstein divergence and layer normalization techniques. We designed 2 utility measures to characterize similarity in the structural properties of real and simulated EMRs in the original and latent space, respectively. We applied a filtering strategy to enhance GAN training for low-prevalence clinical concepts. We evaluated the new and existing GANs with utility and privacy measures (membership and disclosure attacks) using billing codes from over 1 million EMRs at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
The proposed model outperformed the state-of-the-art approaches with significant improvement in retaining the nature of real records, including prediction performance andmore »
These findings illustrate that EMR simulation through GANs can be substantially improved through more appropriate training, modeling, and evaluation criteria.
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