Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently garnered consideration as an attractive solid substrate because the highly tunable MOF framework can not only serve as an inert host but also enhance the selectivity, stability, and/or activity of the enzymes. Herein, we demonstrate the advantages of using a mechanochemical strategy to encapsulate enzymes into robust MOFs. A range of enzymes, namely β-glucosidase, invertase, β-galactosidase, and catalase, are encapsulated in ZIF-8, UiO-66-NH2, or Zn-MOF-74 via a ball milling process. The solid-state mechanochemical strategy is rapid and minimizes the use of organic solvents and strong acids during synthesis, allowing the encapsulation of enzymes into three prototypical robust MOFs while maintaining enzymatic biological activity. The activity of encapsulated enzyme is demonstrated and shows increased resistance to proteases, even under acidic conditions. This work represents a step toward the creation of a suite of biomolecule-in-MOF composites for application in a variety of industrial processes.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly designable porous materials and are recognized for their exceptional selectivity as chemical sensors. However, they are not always suitable for incorporation with existing sensing platforms, especially sensing modes that rely on electronic changes in the sensing material (e.g., work-function response or conductometric response). One way that MOFs can be utilized is by growing them as a porous membrane on a sensing layer and using the MOF to affect the electronic structure of the sensing layer. In this paper, a proof-of-concept for electronic modulation with MOFs is demonstrated. A PdO nanoparticle sensing layer on a chemical-sensitive field-effect-transistor is made more sensitive to a reducing gas, hydrogen, and less sensitive to oxidizng molecules, like H2S and NO2, by growing a layer of the MOF “ZIF-8” over the nanoparticles. The proposed mechanism is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showing that the ZIF-8 membrane partially reduces the PdO sensing layer.
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- Journal Name:
- Journal of The Electrochemical Society
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- Article No. 147503
- The Electrochemical Society
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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