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- Scientific Reports
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract Energy efficiency is motivating the search for new high-temperature (high-T) metals. Some new body-centered-cubic (BCC) random multicomponent “high-entropy alloys (HEAs)” based on refractory elements (Cr-Mo-Nb-Ta-V-W-Hf-Ti-Zr) possess exceptional strengths at high temperatures but the physical origins of this outstanding behavior are not known. Here we show, using integrated in-situ neutron-diffraction (ND), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and recent theory, that the high strength and strength retention of a NbTaTiV alloy and a high-strength/low-density CrMoNbV alloy are attributable to edge dislocations. This finding is surprising because plastic flows in BCC elemental metals and dilute alloys are generally controlled by screw dislocations. We use the insight and theory to perform a computationally-guided search over 10 7 BCC HEAs and identify over 10 6 possible ultra-strong high-T alloy compositions for future exploration.
Microstructures and Properties of the Low-Density Al15Zr40Ti28Nb12M(Cr, Mo, Si)5 High-Entropy AlloysLow-density materials show promising prospects for industrial application in engineering, and have remained a research hotspot. The ingots of Al15Zr40Ti28Nb12Cr5, Al15Zr40Ti28Nb12Mo5 and Al15Zr40Ti28Nb12Si5 high-entropy alloys were prepared using an arc melting method. With the addition of the Cr, Mo, and Si, the phase structures of these alloys changed to a dual phase. The Cr and Mo promote the formation of the B2 phase, while the Si promotes the formation of a large amount of the silicides. The compression yield strengths of these alloys are ~1.36 GPa, ~1.27 GPa, and ~1.35 GPa, respectively. The addition of Si and Cr significantly reduces the compression ductility, and the Al15Zr40Ti28Nb12SiMo5 high-entropy alloy exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. This work investigated the influence of Cr, Mo, and Si on the phase structures and properties of the low-density Al-Zr-Ti-Nb high-entropy alloys, providing theoretical and scientific support for the development of advanced low-density alloys.
Supersaturated solid solutions of Al and corrosion-resistant alloying elements (M: V, Mo, Cr, Ti, Nb), produced by non-equilibrium processing techniques, have been reported to exhibit high corrosion resistance and strength. The corrosion mechanism for such improved corrosion performance has not been well understood. We present a fundamental understanding of the role of V in corrosion of an Al-V alloy, which will provide a theoretical background for developing corrosion-resistant Al alloys. High-energy ball milling of the elemental powder of Al and V produced an in situ consolidated Al-V alloy, which exhibited high solid solubility of V. The corrosion resistance of Al-V alloy was significantly higher than that of pure Al, which was attributed to the (1) enrichment of V at the passive film/substrate interface, (2) incorporation of V into the passive film, and (3) deposition of V on the iron-containing cathodic particles and therefore, retardation of cathodic reaction.
A Novel Low-Activation VCrFeTaxWx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 1) High-Entropy Alloys with Excellent Heat-Softening ResistanceThe microstructure, Vickers hardness, and compressive properties of novel low-activation VCrFeTaxWx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 1) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were studied. The alloys were fabricated by vacuum-arc melting and the characteristics of these alloys were explored. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited a typical morphology of dendritic and eutectic structures. The VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys are essentially single phase, consisting of a disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase, whereas the VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloy contains fine, nanoscale precipitates distributed in the BCC matrix. The lattice parameters and compositions of the identified phases were investigated. The alloys have Vickers hardness values ranging from 546 HV0.2 to 1135 HV0.2 with the x ranging from 0.1 to 1, respectively. The VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys exhibit compressive yield strengths of 1341 MPa and 1742 MPa, with compressive plastic strains of 42.2% and 35.7%, respectively. VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys have excellent hardness after annealing for 25 h at 600–1000 °C, and presented compressive yield strength exceeding 1000 MPa with excellent heat-softening resistance at 600–800 °C. By applying the HEA criteria, Ta and W additions into the VCrFeTaW are proposed as a family of candidate materials for fusion reactors and high-temperature structural applications.
This work demonstrates the processing, modeling, and characterization of nanocrystalline refractory metal tantalum (Ta) as a new structural material for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) thermal actuators (TAs). Nanocrystalline Ta films have a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Young’s modulus comparable to bulk Ta but an approximately ten times greater yield strength. The mechanical properties and grain size remain stable after annealing at temperatures as high as 1000 °C. Ta has a high melting temperature (
Tm = 3017 °C) and a low resistivity ( ρ= 20 µΩ cm). Compared to TAs made from the dominant MEMS material, polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon, Tm = 1414 °C, ρ= 2000 µΩ cm), Ta TAs theoretically require less than half the power input for the same force and displacement, and their temperature change is half that of polysilicon. Ta TAs operate at a voltage 16 times lower than that of other TAs, making them compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). We select α-phase Ta and etch 2.5-μm-thick sputter-deposited films with a 1 μm width while maintaining a vertical sidewall profile to ensure in-plane movement of TA legs. This is 25 times thicker than the thickest reactive-ion-etched α-Ta reported in the technical literature. Residual stress sensitivities to sputter parameters and to hydrogen incorporation are investigated and controlled. Subsequently, a V-shaped TA is fabricated andmore »