The design of alloys for use in gas turbine engine blades is a complex task that involves balancing multiple objectives and constraints. Candidate alloys must be ductile at room temperature and retain their yield strength at high temperatures, as well as possess low density, high thermal conductivity, narrow solidification range, high solidus temperature, and a small linear thermal expansion coefficient. Traditional Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) methods are not sufficient for exploring combinatorially-vast alloy design spaces, optimizing for multiple objectives, nor ensuring that multiple constraints are met. In this work, we propose an approach for solving a constrained multi-objective materials design problem over a large composition space, specifically focusing on the Mo-Nb-Ti-V-W system as a representative Multi-Principal Element Alloy (MPEA) for potential use in next-generation gas turbine blades. Our approach is able to learn and adapt to unknown constraints in the design space, making decisions about the best course of action at each stage of the process. As a result, we identify 21 Pareto-optimal alloys that satisfy all constraints. Our proposed framework is significantly more efficient and faster than a brute force approach.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- npj Computational Materials
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Alloying is a common technique to optimize the functional properties of materials for thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, energy storage etc. Designing thermoelectric (TE) alloys is especially challenging because it is a multi-property optimization problem, where the properties that contribute to high TE performance are interdependent. In this work, we develop a computational framework that combines first-principles calculations with alloy and point defect modeling to identify alloy compositions that optimize the electronic, thermal, and defect properties. We apply this framework to design n-type Ba 2(1− x ) Sr 2 x CdP 2 Zintl thermoelectric alloys. Our predictions of the crystallographic properties such as lattice parameters and site disorder are validated with experiments. To optimize the conduction band electronic structure, we perform band unfolding to sketch the effective band structures of alloys and find a range of compositions that facilitate band convergence and minimize alloy scattering of electrons. We assess the n-type dopability of the alloys by extending the standard approach for computing point defect energetics in ordered structures. Through the application of this framework, we identify an optimal alloy composition range with the desired electronic and thermal transport properties, and n-type dopability. Such a computational framework can also be used to design alloysmore »
This paper proposes a linear parameter varying (LPV) control design for a Clipper Liberty C96 2.5 MW wind turbine to operate in all wind conditions. A standard approach is to use multiple single‐input, single‐output loops for control objectives at different wind speeds. This LPV controller instead takes these objectives into a uniformed multi‐input, multi‐output design framework. The key difference is that the LPV controller is specifically designed to smoothly transition from Region 2 to Region 3 operation. Reducing structural loads is another major concern in the design. Synthesis of the controller relies on a gridded‐based LPV model of the turbine, which is constructed by interpolation of linearized turbine models at different wind speeds. To overcome the conservativeness in the design, parameter varying rates will be considered based on turbulent wind conditions. The performance of the LPV controller is evaluated using a high fidelity FAST model provided by Clipper. The LPV controller is directly compared with the baseline controller currently operating on the turbine. Simulations and analysis show that the LPV controller meets all performance objectives and has better load reduction performance.
The design of multifunctional alloys with multiple chemical components requires controllable synthesis approaches. Physical vapor deposition techniques, which result in thin films (<1 μm), have previously been demonstrated for micromechanical devices and metallic combinatorial libraries. However, this approach deviates from bulk-like properties due to the residual stress derived in thin films and is limited by total film thickness. Here, we report a route to obtain ternary Ni-Mn-Sn alloy thick films with controllable compositions and thicknesses by annealing electrochemically deposited multi-layer monatomic (Ni, Mn, Sn) films, deposited sequentially from separate aqueous deposition baths. We demonstrate (1) controllable compositions, with high degree of uniformity, (2) smooth films, and (3) high reproducibility between film transformation behavior. Our results demonstrate a positive correlation between alloy film thicknesses and grain sizes, as well as consistent bulk-like transformation behavior.
Additive manufacturing promises a major transformation of the production of high economic value metallic materials, enabling innovative, geometrically complex designs with minimal material waste. The overarching challenge is to design alloys that are compatible with the unique additive processing conditions while maintaining material properties sufficient for the challenging environments encountered in energy, space, and nuclear applications. Here we describe a class of high strength, defect-resistant 3D printable superalloys containing approximately equal parts of Co and Ni along with Al, Cr, Ta and W that possess strengths in excess of 1.1 GPa in as-printed and post-processed forms and tensile ductilities of greater than 13% at room temperature. These alloys are amenable to crack-free 3D printing via electron beam melting (EBM) with preheat as well as selective laser melting (SLM) with limited preheat. Alloy design principles are described along with the structure and properties of EBM and SLM CoNi-base materials.
Phase stability and tensorial thermal expansion properties of single to high‐entropy rare‐earth disilicatesAbstract Temperature limitations in nickel‐base superalloys have resulted in the emergence of SiC‐based ceramic matrix composites as a viable replacement for gas turbine components in aviation applications. Higher operating temperatures allow for reduced fuel consumption but present a materials design challenge related to environmental degradation. Rare‐earth disilicates (RE 2 Si 2 O 7 ) have been identified as coatings that can function as environmental barriers and minimize hot component degradation. In this work, single‐ and multiple‐component rare‐earth disilicate powders were synthesized via a sol‐gel method with compositions selected to exist in the monoclinic C 2/ m phase ( β phase). Phase stability in multiple cation compositions was shown to follow a rule of mixtures and the C 2/ m phase could be realized for compositions that contained up to 25% dysprosium, which typically only exists in a triclinic, P , phase. All compositions exhibited phase stability from room temperature to 1200°C as assessed by X‐ray diffraction. The thermal expansion tensors for each composition were determined from high‐temperature synchrotron X‐ray diffraction and accompanying Rietveld refinements. It was observed that ytterbium‐containing compositions had larger changes in the α 31 shear component with increasing temperature that led to a rotation of the principalmore »