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Title: Carnegie Supernova Project II: The Slowest Rising Type Ia Supernova LSQ14fmg and Clues to the Origin of Super-Chandrasekhar/03fg-like Events
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  1. Supernova LSQ13abf was discovered soon after explosion by the La Silla-QUEST Survey and then followed by the Carnegie Supernova Project II at its optical and near-IR wavelengths. Our analysis indicates that LSQ13abf was discovered within two days of explosion and its first ≈10 days of evolution reveal a B -band light curve with an abrupt drop in luminosity. Contemporaneously, the V -band light curve exhibits a rise towards a first peak and the r - and i -band light curves show no early peak. The early light-curve evolution of LSQ13abf is reminiscent of the post-explosion cooling phase observed in the Type Ib SN 2008D, and the similarity between the two objects extends over weeks. Spectroscopically, LSQ13abf also resembles SN 2008D, with P Cygni He  I features that strengthen over several weeks. Spectral energy distributions are constructed from the broad-bandphotometry, a UVOIR light curve is constructed by fitting black-body (BB) functions, and the underlying BB-temperature and BB-radius profiles are estimated. Explosion parameters are estimated by simultaneously fitting an Arnett model to the UVOIR light curve and the velocity evolution derived from spectral features, and an in addition to a post-shock breakout cooling model to the first two epochs of the bolometricmore »evolution. This combined model suggests an explosion energy of 1.27 ± 0.23 × 10 51 ergs, in addition to a relatively high ejecta mass of 5.94 ± 1.10 M ⊙ , a 56 Ni mass of 0.16 ± 0.02 M ⊙ , and a progenitor-star radius of 28.0 ± 7.5 R ⊙ . The ejecta mass suggests the origins of LSQ13abf lie with a > 25  M ⊙ zero-age-main-sequence mass progenitor and its estimated radius is three times larger compared to the result obtained from the same analysis applied to observations of SN 2008D, and nine times larger compared to SN 1999ex. Alternatively, a comparison of hydrodynamical simulations of ≳20−25 M ⊙ zero-age-main-sequence progenitors that evolve to pre-supernova envelope masses of ≲10 M ⊙ and extended (∼100 R ⊙ ) envelopes also broadly match the observations of LSQ13abf.« less
  2. Abstract Cosmological analyses of samples of photometrically-identified type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depend on understanding the effects of ‘contamination’ from core-collapse and peculiar SN Ia events. We employ a rigorous analysis using the photometric classifier SuperNNova on state-of-the-art simulations of SN samples to determine cosmological biases due to such ‘non-Ia’ contamination in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 5-year SN sample. Depending on the non-Ia SN models used in the SuperNNova training and testing samples, contamination ranges from 0.8–3.5 per cent, with a classification efficiency of 97.7–99.5 per cent. Using the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) framework and its extension BBC (‘BEAMS with Bias Correction’), we produce a redshift-binned Hubble diagram marginalised over contamination and corrected for selection effects, and use it to constrain the dark energy equation-of-state, w. Assuming a flat universe with Gaussian ΩM prior of 0.311 ± 0.010, we show that biases on w are <0.008 when using SuperNNova, with systematic uncertainties associated with contamination around 10 per cent of the statistical uncertainty on w for the DES-SN sample. An alternative approach of discarding contaminants using outlier rejection techniques (e.g., Chauvenet’s criterion) in place of SuperNNova leads to biases on w that are larger but stillmore »modest (0.015–0.03). Finally, we measure biases due to contamination on w0 and wa (assuming a flat universe), and find these to be <0.009 in w0 and <0.108 in wa, 5 to 10 times smaller than the statistical uncertainties for the DES-SN sample.« less
  3. Abstract

    The youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, probably the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows surprising anomalies in the distribution of its ejecta in space and velocity. In particular, high-velocity shocked iron is seen in several locations far from the remnant center, in some cases beyond prominent silicon and sulfur emission. These asymmetries strongly suggest a highly asymmetric explosion. We present high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations in two and three dimensions of the evolution from ages of 100 s to hundreds of years of two asymmetric Type Ia models, expanding into a uniform medium. At the age of G1.9+0.3 (about 100 yr), our 2D model shows almost no iron shocked to become visible in X-rays. Only in a much higher-density environment could significant iron be shocked, at which time the model's expansion speed is completely inconsistent with the observations of G1.9+0.3. Our 3D model, evolving the most asymmetric of a suite of Type Ia supernova models from Seitenzahl et al. (2013), shows some features resembling G1.9+0.3. We characterize its evolution with images of composition in three classes: C and O, intermediate-mass elements (IMEs), and iron-group elements (IGEs). From ages of 13 to 1800 yr, we follow the evolution of the highlymore »asymmetric initial remnant as the explosion asymmetries decrease in relative strength, to be replaced by asymmetries due to evolutionary hydrodynamic instabilities. At an age of about 100 yr, our 3D model has comparable shocked masses of C+O, IMEs, and IGEs, with about 0.03Meach. Evolutionary changes appear to be rapid enough that continued monitoring with the Chandra X-ray Observatory may show significant variations.

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