skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1715133

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. ABSTRACT

    Spectropolarimetry enables us to measure the geometry and chemical structure of the ejecta in supernova explosions, which is fundamental for the understanding of their explosion mechanism(s) and progenitor systems. We collected archival data of 35 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), observed with Focal Reducer and Low-Dispersion Spectrograph (FORS) on the Very Large Telescope at 127 epochs in total. We examined the polarization of the Si ii λ6355 Å line ($p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$) as a function of time, which is seen to peak at a range of various polarization degrees and epochs relative to maximum brightness. We reproduced the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship identified in a previous study, and show that subluminous and transitional objects display polarization values below the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship for normal SNe Ia. We found a statistically significant linear relationship between the polarization of the Si ii λ6355 Å line before maximum brightness and the Si ii line velocity and suggest that this, along with the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship, may be explained in the context of a delayed-detonation model. In contrast, we compared our observations to numerical predictions in the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!v_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ plane and found a dichotomy in the polarization propertiesmore »between Chandrasekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions, which supports the possibility of two distinct explosion mechanisms. A subsample of SNe displays evolution of loops in the q–u plane that suggests a more complex Si structure with depth. This insight, which could not be gleaned from total flux spectra, presents a new constraint on explosion models. Finally, we compared our statistical sample of the Si ii polarization to quantitative predictions of the polarization levels for the double-detonation, delayed-detonation, and violent-merger models.

    « less
  2. Abstract We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2021aefx. The early-time u -band light curve shows an excess flux when compared to normal SNe Ia. We suggest that the early excess blue flux may be due to a rapid change in spectral velocity in the first few days post explosion, produced by the emission of the Ca ii H&K feature passing from the u to the B bands on the timescale of a few days. This effect could be dominant for all SNe Ia that have broad absorption features and early-time velocities over 25,000 km s −1 . It is likely to be one of the main causes of early excess u -band flux in SNe Ia that have early-time high velocities. This effect may also be dominant in the UV filters, as well as in places where the SN spectral energy distribution is quickly rising to longer wavelengths. The rapid change in velocity can only produce a monotonic change (in flux-space) in the u band. For objects that explode at lower velocities, and have a more structured shape in the early excess emission, there must also be an additional parameter producing themore »early-time diversity. More early-time observations, in particular early spectra, are required to determine how prominent this effect is within SNe Ia.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) may originate from a wide variety of explosion scenarios and progenitor channels. They exhibit a factor of ≈10 difference in brightness and thus a differentiation in the mass of 56 Ni → 56 Co → 56 Fe. We present a study on the fate of positrons within SNe Ia in order to evaluate their escape fractions and energy spectra. Our detailed Monte Carlo transport simulations for positrons and γ -rays include both β + decay of 56 Co and pair production. We simulate a wide variety of explosion scenarios, including the explosion of white dwarfs (WDs) close to the Chandrasekhar mass ( M Ch ), He-triggered explosions of sub- M Ch WDs, and dynamical mergers of two WDs. For each model, we study the influence of the size and morphology of the progenitor magnetic field between 1 and 10 13 G. Population synthesis based on the observed brightness distribution of SNe Ia was used to estimate the overall contributions to Galactic positrons due to escape from SNe Ia. We find that this is dominated by SNe Ia of normal brightness, where variations in the distribution of emitted positrons are small. We estimate a totalmore »SNe Ia contribution to Galactic positrons of <2% and, depending on the magnetic field morphology, <6–20% for M Ch and sub- M Ch , respectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  4. Type II supernovae (SNe II) show great photometric and spectroscopic diversity which is attributed to the varied physical characteristics of their progenitor and explosion properties. In this study, the third of a series of papers where we analyse a large sample of SNe II observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, we present correlations between their observed and physical properties. Our analysis shows that explosion energy is the physical property that correlates with the highest number of parameters. We recover previously suggested relationships between the hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau duration, and find that more luminous SNe II with higher expansion velocities, faster declining light curves, and higher 56 Ni masses are consistent with higher energy explosions. In addition, faster declining SNe II (usually called SNe IIL) are also compatible with more concentrated 56 Ni in the inner regions of the ejecta. Positive trends are found between the initial mass, explosion energy, and 56 Ni mass. While the explosion energy spans the full range explored with our models, the initial mass generally arises from a relatively narrow range. Observable properties were measured from our grid of bolometric LC and photospheric velocity models to determine the effect of each physical parametermore »on the observed SN II diversity. We argue that explosion energy is the physical parameter causing the greatest impact on SN II diversity, that is, assuming the non-rotating solar-metallicity single-star evolution as in the models used in this study. The inclusion of pre-SN models assuming higher mass loss produces a significant increase in the strength of some correlations, particularly those between the progenitor hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau and optically thick phase durations. These differences clearly show the impact of having different treatments of stellar evolution, implying that changes in the assumption of standard single-star evolution are necessary for a complete understanding of SN II diversity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Abstract We present observations of SN 2021csp, the second example of a newly identified type of supernova (SN) hallmarked by strong, narrow, P Cygni carbon features at early times (Type Icn). The SN appears as a fast and luminous blue transient at early times, reaching a peak absolute magnitude of −20 within 3 days due to strong interaction between fast SN ejecta ( v ≈ 30,000 km s −1 ) and a massive, dense, fast-moving C/O wind shed by the WC-like progenitor months before explosion. The narrow-line features disappear from the spectrum 10–20 days after explosion and are replaced by a blue continuum dominated by broad Fe features, reminiscent of Type Ibn and IIn supernovae and indicative of weaker interaction with more extended H/He-poor material. The transient then abruptly fades ∼60 days post-explosion when interaction ceases. Deep limits at later phases suggest minimal heavy-element nucleosynthesis, a low ejecta mass, or both, and imply an origin distinct from that of classical Type Ic SNe. We place SN 2021csp in context with other fast-evolving interacting transients, and discuss various progenitor scenarios: an ultrastripped progenitor star, a pulsational pair-instability eruption, or a jet-driven fallback SN from a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star. The fallback scenariomore »would naturally explain the similarity between these events and radio-loud fast transients, and suggests a picture in which most stars massive enough to undergo a W-R phase collapse directly to black holes at the end of their lives.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but withmore »a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT Some highly reddened Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) display low total-to-selective extinction ratios (RV ≲ 2) in comparison to that of typical Milky Way dust (RV ≈ 3.3), and polarization curves that rise steeply to blue wavelengths, with peak polarization values at short wavelengths ($\lambda _{\rm max} \lt 0.4\, \mu$m) in comparison to the typical Galactic values ($\lambda _{\rm max} \approx 0.55\, \mu$ m). Understanding the source of these properties could provide insight into the progenitor systems of SNe Ia. We aim to determine whether they are the result of the host galaxy’s interstellar dust or circumstellar dust. This is accomplished by analysing the continuum polarization of 66 SNe Ia in dust-rich spiral galaxies and 13 SNe Ia in dust-poor elliptical galaxies as a function of normalized galactocentric distance. We find that there is a general trend of SNe Ia in spiral galaxies displaying increased polarization values when located closer to the host galaxies’ centre, while SNe Ia in elliptical host galaxies display low polarization. Furthermore, all highly polarized SNe Ia in spiral host galaxies display polarization curves rising toward blue wavelengths, while no evidence of such polarization properties is shown in elliptical host galaxies. This indicates that the source of the peculiar polarizationmore »curves is likely the result of interstellar material as opposed to circumstellar material. The peculiar polarization and extinction properties observed toward some SNe Ia may be explained by the radiative torque disruption mechanism induced by the SN or the interstellar radiation field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2022
  8. ABSTRACT Detailed spectropolarimetric studies may hold the key to probing the explosion mechanisms and the progenitor scenarios of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We present multi-epoch spectropolarimetry and imaging polarimetry of SN 2019ein, an SN Ia showing high expansion velocities at early phases. The spectropolarimetry sequence spans from ∼−11 to +10 d relative to peak brightness in the B band. We find that the level of the continuum polarization of SN 2019ein, after subtracting estimated interstellar polarization, is in the range 0.0–0.3 per cent, typical for SNe Ia. The polarization position angle remains roughly constant before and after the SN light-curve peak, implying that the inner regions share the same axisymmetry as the outer layers. We observe high polarization (∼1 per cent) across both the Si ii λ6355 and Ca ii near-infrared triplet features. These two lines also display complex polarization modulations. The spectropolarimetric properties of SN 2019ein rule out a significant departure from spherical symmetry of the ejecta for up to a month after the explosion. These observations disfavour merger-induced and double-detonation models for SN 2019ein. The imaging polarimetry shows weak evidence for a modest increase in polarization after ∼20 d since the B-band maximum. If this rise is real and is observed in other SNe Ia at similar phases, we may havemore »seen, for the first time, an aspherical interior similar to what has been previously observed for SNe IIP. Future polarization observations of SNe Ia extending to post-peak epochs will help to examine the inner structure of the explosion.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 3, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  10. Abstract We present a study of the influence of magnetic field strength and morphology in Type Ia supernovae and their late-time light curves and spectra. In order to both capture self-consistent magnetic field topologies and evolve our models to late times, a two-stage approach is taken. We study the early deflagration phase (∼1 s) using a variety of magnetic field strengths and find that the topology of the field is set by the burning, independent of the initial strength. We study late-time (∼1000 days) light curves and spectra with a variety of magnetic field topologies and infer magnetic field strengths from observed supernovae. Lower limits are found to be 10 6 G. This is determined by the escape, or lack thereof, of positrons that are tied to the magnetic field. The first stage employs 3D MHD and a local burning approximation and uses the code Enzo. The second stage employs a hybrid approach, with 3D radiation and positron transport and spherical hydrodynamics. The second stage uses the code HYDRA. In our models, magnetic field amplification remains small during the early deflagration phase. Late-time spectra bear the imprint of both magnetic field strength and morphology. Implications for alternative explosion scenarios aremore »discussed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022