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Title: A Simulation-based Approach for Large-scale Evacuation Planning
Abstract—Evacuation planning methods aim to design routes and schedules to relocate people to safety in the event of natural or man-made disasters. The primary goal is to minimize casualties which often requires the evacuation process to be completed as soon as possible. In this paper, we present QueST, an agent-based discrete event queuing network simulation system, and STEERS, an iterative routing algorithm that uses QueST for designing and evaluating large scale evacuation plans in terms of total egress time and congestion/bottlenecks occurring during evacuation. We use the Houston Metropolitan Area, which consists of nine US counties and spans an area of 9,444 square miles as a case study, and compare the performance of STEERS with two existing route planning methods. We find that STEERS is either better or comparable to these methods in terms of total evacuation time and congestion faced by the evacuees. We also analyze the large volume of data generated by the simulation process to gain insights about the scenarios arising from following the evacuation routes prescribed by these methods.
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1633028 1916805 1918656 2027541
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10253401
Journal Name:
IEEE International Conference on Big Data
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1338 to 1345
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. 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