skip to main content


Title: Cooperative Car-Following and Merging: A Novel Merge Control Strategy Considering Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control and Courtesy
This study focuses on how to improve the merge control prior to lane reduction points due to either accidents or constructions. A Cooperative Car-following and Merging (CCM) control strategy is proposed considering the coexistence of Automated Vehicles (AVs) and Human-4 Driven Vehicles (HDVs). CCM introduces a modified/generalized Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for vehicle longitudinal control prior to lane reduction points. It also takes courtesy into account to ensure that AVs behave responsibly and ethically. CCM is evaluated using microscopic traffic simulation and compared with no control and CACC merge strategies. The results show that CCM consistently generates the lowest delays and highest throughputs approaching the theoretical capacity. Its safety benefits are also found to be significant based on vehicle trajectories and density maps. AVs in this study do not need to be fully automated and can be at Level-1 automation. CCM only requires automated longitudinal control such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and information sharing among vehicles, and ACC is already commercially available on many new vehicles. Also, it does not need 100% ACC penetration, presenting itself as a promising and practical solution for improving traffic operations in lane reduction transition areas such as highway work zones.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1734521
NSF-PAR ID:
10257297
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the 100th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is one of the popular connected and automated vehicle (CAV) applications for cooperative driving automation with combined connectivity and automation technologies to improve string stability. This study aimed to derive the string stability conditions of a CACC controller and analyze the impacts of CACC on string stability for both a fleet of homogeneous CAVs and for heterogeneous traffic with human-driven vehicles (HDVs), connected vehicles (CVs) with connectivity technologies only, and autonomous vehicles (AVs) with automation technologies only. We mathematically analyzed the impact of CACC on string stability for both homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic flow. We adopted parameters from literature for HDVs, CVs, and AVs for the heterogeneous traffic case. We found there was a minimum constant time headway required for each parameter design to ensure stability in homogeneous CACC traffic. In addition, the constant time headway and the length of control time interval had positive correlation with stability, but the control parameter had a negative correlation with stability. The numerical analysis also showed that CACC vehicles could maintain string stability better than CVs and AVs under low HDV market penetration rates for the mixed traffic case. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Given the aging infrastructure and the anticipated growing number of highway work zones in the U.S.A., it is important to investigate work zone merge control, which is critical for improving work zone safety and capacity. This paper proposes and evaluates a novel highway work zone merge control strategy based on cooperative driving behavior enabled by artificial intelligence. The proposed method assumes that all vehicles are fully automated, connected, and cooperative. It inserts two metering zones in the open lane to make space for merging vehicles in the closed lane. In addition, each vehicle in the closed lane learns how to adjust its longitudinal position optimally to find a safe gap in the open lane using an off-policy soft actor critic reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm, considering its surrounding traffic conditions. The learning results are captured in convolutional neural networks and used to control individual vehicles in the testing phase. By adding the metering zones and taking the locations, speeds, and accelerations of surrounding vehicles into account, cooperation among vehicles is implicitly considered. This RL-based model is trained and evaluated using a microscopic traffic simulator. The results show that this cooperative RL-based merge control significantly outperforms popular strategies such as late merge and early merge in terms of both mobility and safety measures. It also performs better than a strategy assuming all vehicles are equipped with cooperative adaptive cruise control. 
    more » « less
  3. In this paper, we investigated the performance of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) algorithms in mixed traffic environments featuring connected automated vehicles (CAVs) and unconnected vehicles. For CAVs, we tested the recently proposed linear feedback control approach (Linear- CACCu) and adaptive model predictive control approach (A- MPC-CACCu) which have been tailored to extend CACC to mixed traffic environments. In contrast to most literature where CACC design and evaluation are performed on freeways, we focused on urban arterial roads using the CACC Field Operation Test Dataset from the Netherlands. We compared the performances of Linear-CACCu and A-MPC-CACCu to regular adaptive cruise control (ACC), where automated vehicles do not rely on connectivity, as well as human drivers. Performance comparison was done in terms of ego vehicle’s spacing error, acceleration, and energy consumption which relate to safety, driving comfort, and energy efficiency, respectively. Simulation results showed that CACCu algorithms significantly outper- formed the ACC and human drivers in these metrics. Moreover, we found that the fluctuations of the lead vehicle’s behavior due to changes in traffic signal phase have a significant impact on which CACCu is optimal (i.e., A-MPC-CACCu or Linear- CACCu). Thus, the CACC mode could be switched based on the expectation of traffic signal phase changes to assure better performance. 
    more » « less
  4. The safety impacts of cooperative platooning in mixed traffic consisting of human-driven, con-nected, and connected-automated vehicles were evaluated. The cooperative platooning in mixed traffic control algorithm evaluated is the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with unconnected Vehicle (CACCu) with an unconnected vehicle. Its safety and string stability were evaluated using a high-fidelity simulation based on real-world vehicle trajectories. An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) algorithm was selected for comparison purposes. The results indicate that the cooperative platooning in mixed traffic control algorithm (CACCu) maintains string stability and performs more safely than the ACC. 
    more » « less
  5. Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is one of the main features of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs), which uses connectivity to improve the efficiency of adaptive cruise control (ACC). The addition of reliable communication systems to ACC reduces fuel consumption, maximizes road capacity, and ensures traffic safety. However, the performance, stability, and safety of CACC could be affected by the transmission of outdated data caused by communication delays. This paper proposes a Lyapunov-based nonlinear controller to mitigate the impact of time-varying delays in the communication channel of CACC. This paper uses Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals in the stability analysis to ensure semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. The efficaciousness of the proposed CACC algorithm is demonstrated in simulation and through experimental implementation.

     
    more » « less