Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is one of the popular connected and automated vehicle (CAV) applications for cooperative driving automation with combined connectivity and automation technologies to improve string stability. This study aimed to derive the string stability conditions of a CACC controller and analyze the impacts of CACC on string stability for both a fleet of homogeneous CAVs and for heterogeneous traffic with human-driven vehicles (HDVs), connected vehicles (CVs) with connectivity technologies only, and autonomous vehicles (AVs) with automation technologies only. We mathematically analyzed the impact of CACC on string stability for both homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic flow. We adopted parameters from literature for HDVs, CVs, and AVs for the heterogeneous traffic case. We found there was a minimum constant time headway required for each parameter design to ensure stability in homogeneous CACC traffic. In addition, the constant time headway and the length of control time interval had positive correlation with stability, but the control parameter had a negative correlation with stability. The numerical analysis also showed that CACC vehicles could maintain string stability better than CVs and AVs under low HDV market penetration rates for the mixed traffic case.
Cooperative Car-Following and Merging: A Novel Merge Control Strategy Considering Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control and Courtesy
This study focuses on how to improve the merge control prior to lane reduction points due to either accidents or constructions. A Cooperative Car-following and Merging (CCM) control strategy is proposed considering the coexistence of Automated Vehicles (AVs) and Human-4 Driven Vehicles (HDVs). CCM introduces a modified/generalized Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for vehicle longitudinal control prior to lane reduction points. It also takes courtesy into account to ensure that AVs behave responsibly and ethically. CCM is evaluated using microscopic traffic simulation and compared with no control and CACC merge strategies. The results show that CCM consistently generates the lowest delays and highest throughputs approaching the theoretical capacity. Its safety benefits are also found to be significant based on vehicle trajectories and density maps. AVs in this study do not need to be fully automated and can be at Level-1 automation. CCM only requires automated longitudinal control such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and information sharing among vehicles, and ACC is already commercially available on many new vehicles. Also, it does not need 100% ACC penetration, presenting itself as a promising and practical solution for improving traffic operations in lane reduction transition areas such as highway work zones.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the 100th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Cooperative Highway Work Zone Merge Control Based on Reinforcement Learning in a Connected and Automated EnvironmentGiven the aging infrastructure and the anticipated growing number of highway work zones in the U.S.A., it is important to investigate work zone merge control, which is critical for improving work zone safety and capacity. This paper proposes and evaluates a novel highway work zone merge control strategy based on cooperative driving behavior enabled by artificial intelligence. The proposed method assumes that all vehicles are fully automated, connected, and cooperative. It inserts two metering zones in the open lane to make space for merging vehicles in the closed lane. In addition, each vehicle in the closed lane learns how to adjust its longitudinal position optimally to find a safe gap in the open lane using an off-policy soft actor critic reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm, considering its surrounding traffic conditions. The learning results are captured in convolutional neural networks and used to control individual vehicles in the testing phase. By adding the metering zones and taking the locations, speeds, and accelerations of surrounding vehicles into account, cooperation among vehicles is implicitly considered. This RL-based model is trained and evaluated using a microscopic traffic simulator. The results show that this cooperative RL-based merge control significantly outperforms popular strategies such as late mergemore »
A distributionally robust stochastic optimization-based model predictive control with distributionally robust chance constraints for cooperative adaptive cruise control under uncertain traffic conditionsMotivated by connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, this paper proposes a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework for the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) of a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions. The proposed data-driven optimization-based MPC modeling framework aims to improve the stability, robustness, and safety of longitudinal cooperative automated driving involving a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) data. Based on an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model, we predict the uncertain driving states of the vehicles preceding the controlled CAVs. With the predicted driving states of the preceding vehicles, we solve a constrained Finite-Horizon Optimal Control problem to predict the uncertain driving states of the controlled CAVs. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the CAVs under uncertainties, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e. a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with a Distributionally Robust Chance Constraint (DRCC). The predicted uncertain driving states of the immediately preceding vehicles and the controlled CAVs will be utilized in the safety constraint and the reference driving states of the DRSO-DRCC model. To solve the minimax program of the DRSO-DRCC model, we reformulate themore »
Developing Highway Capacity Manual Capacity Adjustment Factors for Connected and Automated Traffic on Freeway SegmentsConnected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will undoubtedly transform many aspects of transportation systems in the future. In the meantime, transportation agencies must make investment and policy decisions to address the future needs of the transportation system. This research provides much-needed guidance for agencies about planning-level capacities in a CAV future and quantify Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) capacities as a function of CAV penetration rates and vehicle behaviors such as car-following, lane change, and merge. As a result of numerous uncertainties on CAV implementation policies, the study considers many scenarios including variations in parameters (including CAV gap/headway settings), roadway geometry, and traffic characteristics. More specifically, this study considers basic freeway, freeway merge, and freeway weaving segments in which various simulation scenarios are evaluated using two major CAV applications: cooperative adaptive cruise control and advanced merging. Data from microscopic traffic simulation are collected to develop capacity adjustment factors for CAVs. Results show that the existence of CAVs in the traffic stream can significantly enhance the roadway capacity (by as much as 35% to 40% under certain cases), not only on basic freeways but also on merge and weaving segments, as the CAV market penetration rate increases. The human driver behavior of baselinemore »
Evaluating the driving behavior of autonomous vehicles and human driver vehicles in mixed driver environments at a signalized intersectionZonta, Daniele ; Su, Zhongqing ; Glisic, Branko (Ed.)With the rapid development of smart cities, interest in vehicle automation continues growing. Autonomous vehicles are becoming more and more popular among people and are considered to be the future of ground transportation. Autonomous vehicles, either with adaptive cruise control (ACC) or cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), provide many possibilities for smart transportation in a smart city. However, traditional vehicles and autonomous vehicles will have to share the same road systems until autonomous vehicles fully penetrate the market over the next few decades, which leads to conflicts because of the inconsistency of human drivers. In this paper, the performance of autonomous vehicles with ACC/CACC and traditional vehicles in mixed driver environments, at a signalized intersection, were evaluated using the micro-simulator VISSIM. In the simulation, the vehicles controlled by the ACC/CACC and Wiedemann 99 (W99) model represent the behavior of autonomous vehicles and human driver vehicles, respectively. For these two different driver environments, four different transport modes were comprehensively investigated: full light duty cars, full trucks, full motorcycles, and mixed conditions. In addition, ten different seed numbers were applied to each model to avoid coincidence. To evaluate the driving behavior of the human drivers and autonomous vehicles, this paper will comparemore »