skip to main content

Title: Effects of pH and Ca exchange on the structure and redox state of synthetic Na-birnessite
Abstract Birnessite-like minerals are among the most common Mn oxides in surficial soils and sediments, and they mediate important environmental processes (e.g., biogeochemical cycles, heavy metal confinement) and have novel technological applications (e.g., water oxidation catalysis). Ca is the dominant interlayer cation in both biotic and abiotic birnessites, especially when they form in association with carbonates. The current study investigated the structures of a series of synthetic Ca-birnessite analogs prepared by cation-exchange with synthetic Na-birnessite at pH values from 2 to 7.5. The resulting Ca-exchanged birnessite phases were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. All samples synthesized at pH values greater than 3 exhibited a similar triclinic structure with nearly identical unit-cell parameters. The samples exchanged at pH 2 and 3 yielded hexagonal structures, or mixtures of hexagonal and triclinic phases. Rietveld structure refinement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that exchange of Na by Ca triggered reduction of some Mn3+, generating interlayer Mn2+ and vacancies in the octahedral layers. The triclinic and hexagonal Ca-birnessite structures described in this study were distinct from Na- and H-birnessite, respectively. Therefore, modeling X-ray absorption spectra of natural Ca-rich birnessites through mixing of Na- and H-birnessite end-members will not yield an accurate representation of the true structure.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
American Mineralogist
Page Range / eLocation ID:
15 to 27
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract In this study, we investigated an unusual natural Mn oxide hollandite-group mineral from the Kohare Mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan, that has predominantly water molecules in the tunnels, with K, Na, Ca, and Ba. The specimens are labeled as type manjiroite, but our analyses show that Na is not the dominant tunnel species, nor is it even the primary tunnel cation, suggesting either an error in the original analyses or significant compositional variation within samples from the type locality. Chemical analyses, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis measurements combined with Rietveld refinement results using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data suggest the chemical formula: (K0.19Na0.17Ca0.03Ba0.01H2O1.60)(Mn5.024+Mn2.823+Al0.14Fe0.02)O13.47(OH)2.53. Our analyses indicate that water is the primary tunnel species, and although water has been reported as a component in natural hollandites, this is the first detailed study of the crystal structure and dehydration behavior of a natural hydrous hollandite with water as the predominant tunnel species. This work underscores the rarity of natural Na-rich hollandite phases and focuses new attention on the role of hydrous components of hollandite-like phases in determining their capacities to exchange or accommodate various cations, such as Li+, Na+, Ba2+, Pb2+, and K+ in natural systems. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Next‐generation electronics and energy technologies can now be developed as a result of the design, discovery, and development of novel, environmental friendly lead (Pb)‐free ferroelectric materials with improved characteristics and performance. However, there have only been a few reports of such complex materials’ design with multi‐phase interfacial chemistry, which can facilitate enhanced properties and performance. In this context, herein, novel lead‐free piezoelectric materials (1‐x)Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.95Zr0.05O3‐(x)Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.95Sn0.05O3, are reported, which are represented as (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST, with demonstrated excellent properties and energy harvesting performance. The (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST materials are synthesized by high‐temperature solid‐state ceramic reaction method by varyingxin the full range (x= 0.00–1.00). In‐depth exploration research is performed on the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and electro‐mechanical properties of (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST ceramics. The formation of perovskite structure for all ceramics without the presence of any impurity phases is confirmed by X‐ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, which also reveals that the Ca2+, Zr4+, and Sn4+are well dispersed within the BaTiO3lattice. For all (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST ceramics, thorough investigation of phase formation and phase‐stability using XRD, Rietveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and temperature‐dependent dielectric measurements provide conclusive evidence for the coexistence of orthorhombic + tetragonal (Amm2+P4mm) phases at room temperature. The steady transition ofAmm2crystal symmetry toP4mmcrystal symmetry with increasingxcontent is also demonstrated by Rietveld refinement data and related analyses. The phase transition temperatures, rhombohedral‐orthorhombic (TR‐O), orthorhombic‐ tetragonal (TO‐T), and tetragonal‐cubic (TC), gradually shift toward lower temperature with increasingxcontent. For (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST ceramics, significantly improved dielectric and ferroelectric properties are observed, including relatively high dielectric constantεr≈ 1900–3300 (near room temperature),εr≈ 8800–12 900 (near Curie temperature), dielectric loss, tanδ≈ 0.01–0.02, remanent polarizationPr≈ 9.4–14 µC cm−2, coercive electric fieldEc≈ 2.5–3.6 kV cm−1. Further, high electric field‐induced strainS≈ 0.12–0.175%, piezoelectric charge coefficientd33≈ 296–360 pC N−1, converse piezoelectric coefficient ≈ 240–340 pm V−1, planar electromechanical coupling coefficientkp≈ 0.34–0.45, and electrostrictive coefficient (Q33)avg≈ 0.026–0.038 m4C−2are attained. Output performance with respect to mechanical energy demonstrates that the (0.6)BCZT‐(0.4)BCST composition (x= 0.4) displays better efficiency for generating electrical energy and, thus, the synthesized lead‐free piezoelectric (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST samples are suitable for energy harvesting applications. The results and analyses point to the outcome that the (1‐x)BCZT‐(x)BCST ceramics as a potentially strong contender within the family of Pb‐free piezoelectric materials for future electronics and energy harvesting device technologies.

    more » « less
  3. In this work, we investigate the synthesis, along with the structural and magnetic properties, of novel Mn-Co-NiO-based heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs). The objective is to develop novel, well-structurally ordered inverted antiferromagnetic (AFM) NiO–ferrimagnetic (FiM) spinel phase overgrowth HNCs. Inverted HNCs are particularly promising for magnetic device applications because their magnetic properties are more easily controlled by having well-ordered AFM cores, which can result in magnetic structures having large coercivities, tunable blocking temperatures, and other enhanced magnetic effects. The synthesis of the HNCs is accomplished using a two-step process: In the first step, NiO nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. Subsequently, Mn-Co overgrowth phases are grown on the NiO nanoparticles via hydrothermal nanophase epitaxy, using a fixed pH level (∼5.3) of the aqueous medium. This pH level was selected based on previous work in our laboratory showing that NiO/Mn 3 O 4 HNCs of constant size have optimal coercivity and exchange bias when synthesized at a pH of 5.0. The crystalline structure and gross morphology of the Mn-Co-NiO-based HNCs have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. Analysis using these techniques shows that the HNCs are composed of a NiO core and a CoMn 2 O 4 overgrowth phase. Rietveld refinement of XRD data shows that the NiO core has the rocksalt (Fm[Formula: see text]m) cubic crystal structure and the CoMn 2 O 4 overgrowth has the spinel ( I4 1 / amd) crystal structure. Moreover, an increased relative amount of the CoMn 2 O 4 overgrowth phase is deposited with decreasing NiO core particle size during the synthesis of the HNCs. The results from PPMS magnetization and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization of the Mn-Co-NiO-based HNCs are discussed herein. 
    more » « less
  4. The stabilization of the B-site oxidation state in ABO 3 perovskites using wet-chemical methods is a synthetic challenge, which is of fundamental and practical interest for energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, defect-controlled (Sr-deficiency and oxygen vacancies) strontium niobium( iv ) oxide (Sr 1−x NbO 3−δ , SNO) metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized for the first time using a low-pressure wet-chemistry synthesis. The experiments were performed under reduced oxygen partial pressure to prevent by-product formation and with varying Sr/Nb molar ratio to favor the formation of Nb 4+ pervoskites. At a critical Sr to Nb ratio (Sr/Nb = 1.3), a phase transition is observed forming an oxygen-deficient SrNbO 3 phase. Structural refinement on the resultant diffraction pattern shows that the SNO NPs consists of a near equal mixture of SrNbO 3 and Sr 0.7 NbO 3−δ crystal phases. A combination of Rietveld refinement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the stabilization of the +4 oxidation state and the formation of oxygen vacancies. The Nb local site symmetry was extracted through Raman spectroscopy and modeled using DFT. As further confirmation, the particles demonstrate the expected absorption highlighting their restored optoelectronic properties. This low-pressure wet-chemical approach for stabilizing the oxidation state of a transition metal has the potential to be extended to other oxygen sensitive, low dimensional perovskite oxides with unique properties. 
    more » « less
  5. The mineral apatite, Ca10(PO4)6(F,OH,Cl)2, incorporates sulfur (S) during crystallization from S-bearing hydrothermal fluids and silicate melts. Our previous studies of natural and experimental apatite demonstrate that the oxidation state of S in apatite varies systematically as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2). The S oxidation states –1 and –2 were quantitatively identified in apatite crystallized from reduced, S-bearing hydrothermal fluids and silicate melts by using sulfur K-edge X‑ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (S-XANES) where S6+/ΣS in apatite increases from ~0 at FMQ-1 to ~1 at FMQ+2, where FMQ refers to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz fO2 buffer. In this study, we employ quantum-mechanical calculations to investigate the atomistic structure and energetics of S(-I) and S(-II) incorporated into apatite and elucidate incorporation mechanisms. One S(-I) species (disulfide, S22−) and two S(-II) species (bisulfide, HS−, and sulfide, S2−) are investigated as possible forms of reduced S species in apatite. In configuration models for the simulation, these reduced S species are positioned along the c-axis channel, originally occupied by the column anions F, Cl, and OH in the end-member apatites. In the lowest-energy configurations of S-incorporated apatite, disulfide prefers to be positioned halfway between the mirror planes at z = 1/4 and 3/4. In contrast, the energy-optimized bisulfide is located slightly away from the mirror planes by ~0.04 fractional units in the c direction. The energetic stability of these reduced S species as a function of position along the c-axis can be explained by the geometric and electrostatic constraints of the Ca and O planes that constitute the c-axis channel. The thermodynamics of incorporation of disulfide and bisulfide into apatite are evaluated by using solid-state reaction equations where the apatite host and a solid S-bearing source phase (pyrite and Na2S2(s) for disulfide; troilite and Na2S(s) for sulfide) are the reactants, and the S-incorporated apatite and an anion sink phase are the products. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is lower for incorporation with Na-bearing phases than with Fe-bearing phases, which is attributed to the higher energetic stability of the iron sulfide minerals as a source phase for S than the sodium sulfide phases. The thermodynamics of incorporation of reduced S are also evaluated by using reaction equations involving dissolved disulfide and sulfide species [HnS2(aq)(2–n) and HnS(aq)(2–n); n = 0, 1, and 2] as a source phase. The ΔG of S-incorporation increases for fluorapatite and chlorapatite and decreases for hydroxylapatite as these species are protonated (i.e., as n changes from 0 to 2). These thermodynamic results demonstrate that the presence of reduced S in apatite is primarily controlled by the chemistry of magmatic and hydrothermal systems where apatite forms (e.g., an abundance of Fe; solution pH). Ultimately, our methodology developed for evaluating the thermodynamics of S incorporation in apatite as a function of temperature, pH, and composition is highly applicable to predicting the trace and volatile element incorporation in minerals in a variety of geological systems. In addition to solid-solid and solid-liquid equilibria treated here at different temperatures and pH, the methodology can be easily extended also to different pressure conditions by just performing the quantum-mechanical calculations at elevated pressures. 
    more » « less