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Title: Frequency Regulation with Heterogeneous Energy Resources: A Realization using Distributed Control
This paper presents one of the first real-life demonstrations of coordinated and distributed resource control for secondary frequency response in a power distribution grid. A series of tests involved up to 69 heterogeneous active distributed energy resources consisting of air handling units, unidirectional and bidirectional electric vehicle charging stations, a battery energy storage system, and 107 passive distributed energy resources consisting of building loads and solar photovoltaic systems. The distributed control setup consists of a set of Raspberry Pi end-points exchanging messages via an ethernet switch. Actuation commands for the distributed energy resources are obtained by solving a power allocation problem at every regulation instant using distributed ratio-consensus, primal-dual, and Newton-like algorithms. The problem formulation minimizes the sum of distributed energy resource costs while tracking the aggregate setpoint provided by the system operator. We demonstrate accurate and fast real-time distributed computation of the optimization solution and effective tracking of the regulation signal over 40 min time horizons. An economic benefit analysis confirms eligibility to participate in an ancillary services market and demonstrates up to $53k of potential annual revenue for the selected population of distributed energy resources.
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IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
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National Science Foundation
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